Questões e gabarito - AFA 2015

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1-15 de 54
Questão
2015Física

(Epcar (Afa) 2015) A figura a seguir representa um dispositivo usado para medir a velocidade angular de uma roda, constituída de material eletricamente isolante. Este dispositivo é constituído por uma espira condutora de área 0,5 m2 e imersa dentro de um campo magnético uniforme de intensidade 1,0 T. A espira gira devido ao contato da polia P com a roda em que se deseja medir a velocidade angular . A espira é ligada a um voltímetro ideal V que indica, em cada instante t, a voltagem nos terminais dela. Considerando que não há deslizamento entre a roda e a polia P e sabendo-se que o voltímetro indica uma tensão eficaz igual a 10 V e que a razão entre o raio da roda (R) e o raio (r) da polia é pode-se afirmar que em rad/s, é igual a

Questão
2015Português

(Epcar (Afa) 2015) Assinale a alternativa que analisa de maneira adequada a figura de linguagem utilizada.

Questão
2015Inglês

(AFA 2015) Texto 2 JOBS OF THE FUTURE There is no future in any job. The future lies in the person who holds the job. George W. Crane One of my primary complaints with higher education is that they tend to prepare students for jobs of the past. Similarly, the best paying jobs of the future are all jobs that currently exist today. Many of them will still exist in the future, but with some changes as technology and communication systems make their impact. As a rule of thumb, 60% of the jobs 10 years from now havent been invented yet. With that in mind, Ive decided to put together a list of some jobs that will be in high demand in the future. Jobs before 2020 Many of the changes we see today will cause new jobs to materialize quickly. This first section deals with new positions that will likely be developed within the next 10 years. 3D printing engineers Classes in 3D printing are already being introduced into high schools and the demand for printer-produced products will rise quickly. The trend will be for these worker-less workshops to enter virtually different fields, at the same time, driving the need for competent technicians and engineers to design and maintain the next wave of this technology. Nano-medics Health professionals capable of working on the nano-level, both in designing diagnostics systems, remedies, and monitoring solutions will be in high demand. Organ agents The demand for transplantable organs is exploding and people who can track down and deliver healthy organs will be in hot demand. Octogenarian service providers As the population continues to age we will have record numbers of people living into their 80s, 90s, and 100s. This growing group of active oldsters will provide a demand for goods and services currently not being addressed in todays marketplace. Jobs in 2030 and beyond A number of technologies currently on the drawing board will require a bit longer lead time before the industry comes into its own. Here are a few examples of these kinds of jobs: Body part limb makers The organ agents listed before will quickly find themselves out of work as soon as we figure out how to efficiently grow and mass produce our own organs from scratch. Earthquake forecasters While scientists are developing skills to work with nanoscale precision on the earths surface, the best we can know about below the surface is blindfolded guesswork done with 100-mile precision. What we dont know is literally killing us over 226,000 killed in 2010 alone. But that will change over time as we begin to understand the inner working of the earth and accurately forecast when the next big quakes are about to hit. Heavy air engineers Compressed air is useful in a wide variety of ways. However, we have yet to figure out how to compress streams of air as they pass through our existing atmosphere. Once we do, it will create untold opportunity for non-surface based housing and transportation system, weather control, and other kinds of experimentation. Final thoughts The jobs and occupations listed above are just scratching the surface. This list is intended to help stretch your imagination and start you down a path of imagining your own future. (Adapted from http://www.futuristspeaker.com/2011/11/55-jobs-of-the-future) The texts main goal is to

Questão
2015Física

(Epcar (Afa) 2015) O diagrama a seguir mostra os níveis de energia permitidos para elétrons de um certo elemento químico. Durante a emissão de radiação por este elemento, são observados três comprimentos de onda: , e . Sabendo-se que , pode-se afirmar que é igual a

Questão
2015Inglês

(AFA 2015) Texto 1 JOBS AT HIGH RISK It is an invisible force that goes by many names. Computerization. Automation. Artificial intelligence. Technology. Innovation. And, everyones favorite, ROBOTS. Whatever name you prefer, some form of it has been stimulating progress and killing jobs from tailors to paralegals for centuries. But this time is different: nearly half of American jobs today could be automated in a decade or two. The question is: which half? Another way of posing the same question is: Where do machines work better than people? Tractors are more powerful than farmers. Robotic arms are stronger and more tireless than assembly-line workers. But in the past 30 years, software and robots have succeeded replacing a particular kind of occupation: the average-wage, middle-skill, routine-heavy worker, especially in manufacturing and office administration. Indeed, its projected that the next wave of computer progress will continue to endanger human work where it already has: manufacturing, administrative support, retail, and transportation. Most remaining factory jobs are likely to diminish over the next decades. Cashiers, counter clerks, and telemarketers are similarly endangered. On the other hand, health care workers, people responsible for our safety, and management positions are the least likely to be automated. The next big thing We might be on the edge of an innovating moment in robotics and artificial intelligence. Although the past 30 years have reduced the middle, high- and low-skill jobs have actually increased, as if protected from the invading armies of robots by their own moats. Higher-skill workers have been protected by a kind of social-intelligence moat. Computers are historically good at executing routines, but theyre bad at finding patterns, communicating with people, and making decisions, which is what managers are paid to do. This is why some people think managers are, for the moment, one of the largest categories immune to the fast wave of AI. Meanwhile, lower-skill workers have been protected by the Moravec moat. Hans Moravec was a futurist who pointed out that machine technology copied a savant infant: Machines could do long math equations instantly and beat anybody in chess, but they cant answer a simple question or walk up a flight of stairs. As a result, not skilled work done by people without much education (like home health care workers, or fast-food attendants) have been saved, too. The human half In the 19th century, new manufacturing technology replaced what was then skilled labor. In the second half of the 20th century, however, software technology took the place of median-salaried office work. The first wave showed that machines are better at assembling things. The second showed that machines are better at organizing things. Now data analytics and self-driving cars suggest they might be better at patternrecognition and driving. So what are we better at? The safest industries and jobs are dominated by managers, health-care workers, and a super-category that includes education, media, and community service. One conclusion to draw from this is that humans are, and will always be, superior at working with, and caring for other humans. In this light, automation doesnt make the world worse. Far from it: it creates new opportunities for human creativity. But robots are already creeping into diagnostics and surgeries. Schools are already experimenting with software that replaces teaching hours. The fact that some industries have been safe from automation for the last three decades doesnt guarantee that theyll be safe for the next one. It would be anxious enough if we knew exactly which jobs are next in line for automation. The truth is scarier. We dont really have a clue. (Adapted from http://www.businessinsider.com/robots-overtakingamerican-jobs-2014-1) Glossary: savant infant a child with great knowledge and ability to assemble to make something by joining separate parts to creep to move slowly, quietly and carefully Mark the option closest in meaning to We dont really have a clue (line 78).

Questão
2015Inglês

(AFA 2015) Texto 1 JOBS AT HIGH RISK It is an invisible force that goes by many names. Computerization. Automation. Artificial intelligence. Technology. Innovation. And, everyones favorite, ROBOTS. Whatever name you prefer, some form of it has been stimulating progress and killing jobs from tailors to paralegals for centuries. But this time is different: nearly half of American jobs today could be automated in a decade or two. The question is: which half? Another way of posing the same question is: Where do machines work better than people? Tractors are more powerful than farmers. Robotic arms are stronger and more tireless than assembly-line workers. But in the past 30 years, software and robots have succeeded replacing a particular kind of occupation: the average-wage, middle-skill, routine-heavy worker, especially in manufacturing and office administration. Indeed, its projected that the next wave of computer progress will continue to endanger human work where it already has: manufacturing, administrative support, retail, and transportation. Most remaining factory jobs are likely to diminish over the next decades. Cashiers, counter clerks, and telemarketers are similarly endangered. On the other hand, health care workers, people responsible for our safety, and management positions are the least likely to be automated. The next big thing We might be on the edge of an innovating moment in robotics and artificial intelligence. Although the past 30 years have reduced the middle, high- and low-skill jobs have actually increased, as if protected from the invading armies of robots by their own moats. Higher-skill workers have been protected by a kind of social-intelligence moat. Computers are historically good at executing routines, but theyre bad at finding patterns, communicating with people, and making decisions, which is what managers are paid to do. This is why some people think managers are, for the moment, one of the largest categories immune to the fast wave of AI. Meanwhile, lower-skill workers have been protected by the Moravec moat. Hans Moravec was a futurist who pointed out that machine technology copied a savant infant: Machines could do long math equations instantly and beat anybody in chess, but they cant answer a simple question or walk up a flight of stairs. As a result, not skilled work done by people without much education (like home health care workers, or fast-food attendants) have been saved, too. The human half In the 19th century, new manufacturing technology replaced what was then skilled labor. In the second half of the 20th century, however, software technology took the place of median-salaried office work. The first wave showed that machines are better at assembling things. The second showed that machines are better at organizing things. Now data analytics and self-driving cars suggest they might be better at patternrecognition and driving. So what are we better at? The safest industries and jobs are dominated by managers, health-care workers, and a super-category that includes education, media, and community service. One conclusion to draw from this is that humans are, and will always be, superior at working with, and caring for other humans. In this light, automation doesnt make the world worse. Far from it: it creates new opportunities for human creativity. But robots are already creeping into diagnostics and surgeries. Schools are already experimenting with software that replaces teaching hours. The fact that some industries have been safe from automation for the last three decades doesnt guarantee that theyll be safe for the next one. It would be anxious enough if we knew exactly which jobs are next in line for automation. The truth is scarier. We dont really have a clue. (Adapted from http://www.businessinsider.com/robots-overtakingamerican-jobs-2014-1) Glossary: savant infant a child with great knowledge and ability to assemble to make something by joining separate parts to creep to move slowly, quietly and carefully One of the purposes of the text is to show that

Questão
2015Inglês

(AFA 2015) Texto 1 JOBS AT HIGH RISK It is an invisible force that goes by many names. Computerization. Automation. Artificial intelligence. Technology. Innovation. And, everyones favorite, ROBOTS. Whatever name you prefer, some form of it has been stimulating progress and killing jobs from tailors to paralegals for centuries. But this time is different: nearly half of American jobs today could be automated in a decade or two. The question is: which half? Another way of posing the same question is: Where do machines work better than people? Tractors are more powerful than farmers. Robotic arms are stronger and more tireless than assembly-line workers. But in the past 30 years, software and robots have succeeded replacing a particular kind of occupation: the average-wage, middle-skill, routine-heavy worker, especially in manufacturing and office administration. Indeed, its projected that the next wave of computer progress will continue to endanger human work where it already has: manufacturing, administrative support, retail, and transportation. Most remaining factory jobs are likely to diminish over the next decades. Cashiers, counter clerks, and telemarketers are similarly endangered. On the other hand, health care workers, people responsible for our safety, and management positions are the least likely to be automated. The next big thing We might be on the edge of an innovating moment in robotics and artificial intelligence. Although the past 30 years have reduced the middle, high- and low-skill jobs have actually increased, as if protected from the invading armies of robots by their own moats. Higher-skill workers have been protected by a kind of social-intelligence moat. Computers are historically good at executing routines, but theyre bad at finding patterns, communicating with people, and making decisions, which is what managers are paid to do. This is why some people think managers are, for the moment, one of the largest categories immune to the fast wave of AI. Meanwhile, lower-skill workers have been protected by the Moravec moat. Hans Moravec was a futurist who pointed out that machine technology copied a savant infant: Machines could do long math equations instantly and beat anybody in chess, but they cant answer a simple question or walk up a flight of stairs. As a result, not skilled work done by people without much education (like home health care workers, or fast-food attendants) have been saved, too. The human half In the 19th century, new manufacturing technology replaced what was then skilled labor. In the second half of the 20th century, however, software technology took the place of median-salaried office work. The first wave showed that machines are better at assembling things. The second showed that machines are better at organizing things. Now data analytics and self-driving cars suggest they might be better at patternrecognition and driving. So what are we better at? The safest industries and jobs are dominated by managers, health-care workers, and a super-category that includes education, media, and community service. One conclusion to draw from this is that humans are, and will always be, superior at working with, and caring for other humans. In this light, automation doesnt make the world worse. Far from it: it creates new opportunities for human creativity. But robots are already creeping into diagnostics and surgeries. Schools are already experimenting with software that replaces teaching hours. The fact that some industries have been safe from automation for the last three decades doesnt guarantee that theyll be safe for the next one. It would be anxious enough if we knew exactly which jobs are next in line for automation. The truth is scarier. We dont really have a clue. (Adapted from http://www.businessinsider.com/robots-overtakingamerican-jobs-2014-1) Glossary: savant infant a child with great knowledge and ability to assemble to make something by joining separate parts to creep to move slowly, quietly and carefully The expression wave of computer progress (lines 18 and 19) has the same idea as

Questão
2015Inglês

(AFA 2015) Texto 2 JOBS OF THE FUTURE There is no future in any job. The future lies in the person who holds the job. George W. Crane One of my primary complaints with higher education is that they tend to prepare students for jobs of the past. Similarly, the best paying jobs of the future are all jobs that currently exist today. Many of them will still exist in the future, but with some changes as technology and communication systems make their impact. As a rule of thumb, 60% of the jobs 10 years from now havent been invented yet. With that in mind, Ive decided to put together a list of some jobs that will be in high demand in the future. Jobs before 2020 Many of the changes we see today will cause new jobs to materialize quickly. This first section deals with new positions that will likely be developed within the next 10 years. 3D printing engineers Classes in 3D printing are already being introduced into high schools and the demand for printer-produced products will rise quickly. The trend will be for these worker-less workshops to enter virtually different fields, at the same time, driving the need for competent technicians and engineers to design and maintain the next wave of this technology. Nano-medics Health professionals capable of working on the nano-level, both in designing diagnostics systems, remedies, and monitoring solutions will be in high demand. Organ agents The demand for transplantable organs is exploding and people who can track down and deliver healthy organs will be in hot demand. Octogenarian service providers As the population continues to age we will have record numbers of people living into their 80s, 90s, and 100s. This growing group of active oldsters will provide a demand for goods and services currently not being addressed in todays marketplace. Jobs in 2030 and beyond A number of technologies currently on the drawing board will require a bit longer lead time before the industry comes into its own. Here are a few examples of these kinds of jobs: Body part limb makers The organ agents listed before will quickly find themselves out of work as soon as we figure out how to efficiently grow and mass produce our own organs from scratch. Earthquake forecasters While scientists are developing skills to work with nanoscale precision on the earths surface, the best we can know about below the surface is blindfolded guesswork done with 100-mile precision. What we dont know is literally killing us over 226,000 killed in 2010 alone. But that will change over time as we begin to understand the inner working of the earth and accurately forecast when the next big quakes are about to hit. Heavy air engineers Compressed air is useful in a wide variety of ways. However, we have yet to figure out how to compress streams of air as they pass through our existing atmosphere. Once we do, it will create untold opportunity for non-surface based housing and transportation system, weather control, and other kinds of experimentation. Final thoughts The jobs and occupations listed above are just scratching the surface. This list is intended to help stretch your imagination and start you down a path of imagining your own future. (Adapted from http://www.futuristspeaker.com/2011/11/55-jobs-of-the-future) Mark the INCORRECT alternative.

Questão
2015Inglês

(AFA 2015) Texto 2 JOBS OF THE FUTURE There is no future in any job. The future lies in the person who holds the job. George W. Crane One of my primary complaints with higher education is that they tend to prepare students for jobs of the past. Similarly, the best paying jobs of the future are all jobs that currently exist today. Many of them will still exist in the future, but with some changes as technology and communication systems make their impact. As a rule of thumb, 60% of the jobs 10 years from now havent been invented yet. With that in mind, Ive decided to put together a list of some jobs that will be in high demand in the future. Jobs before 2020 Many of the changes we see today will cause new jobs to materialize quickly. This first section deals with new positions that will likely be developed within the next 10 years. 3D printing engineers Classes in 3D printing are already being introduced into high schools and the demand for printer-produced products will rise quickly. The trend will be for these worker-less workshops to enter virtually different fields, at the same time, driving the need for competent technicians and engineers to design and maintain the next wave of this technology. Nano-medics Health professionals capable of working on the nano-level, both in designing diagnostics systems, remedies, and monitoring solutions will be in high demand. Organ agents The demand for transplantable organs is exploding and people who can track down and deliver healthy organs will be in hot demand. Octogenarian service providers As the population continues to age we will have record numbers of people living into their 80s, 90s, and 100s. This growing group of active oldsters will provide a demand for goods and services currently not being addressed in todays marketplace. Jobs in 2030 and beyond A number of technologies currently on the drawing board will require a bit longer lead time before the industry comes into its own. Here are a few examples of these kinds of jobs: Body part limb makers The organ agents listed before will quickly find themselves out of work as soon as we figure out how to efficiently grow and mass produce our own organs from scratch. Earthquake forecasters While scientists are developing skills to work with nanoscale precision on the earths surface, the best we can know about below the surface is blindfolded guesswork done with 100-mile precision. What we dont know is literally killing us over 226,000 killed in 2010 alone. But that will change over time as we begin to understand the inner working of the earth and accurately forecast when the next big quakes are about to hit. Heavy air engineers Compressed air is useful in a wide variety of ways. However, we have yet to figure out how to compress streams of air as they pass through our existing atmosphere. Once we do, it will create untold opportunity for non-surface based housing and transportation system, weather control, and other kinds of experimentation. Final thoughts The jobs and occupations listed above are just scratching the surface. This list is intended to help stretch your imagination and start you down a path of imagining your own future. (Adapted from http://www.futuristspeaker.com/2011/11/55-jobs-of-the-future) The jobs and occupations listed above are just scratching the surface. (lines 64 and 65). This sentence means that

Questão
2015Inglês

AFA 2015 (Texto 2) JOBS OF THE FUTURE There is no future in any job. The future lies in the person who holds the job. George W. Crane One of my primary complaints with higher education is that they tend to prepare students for jobs of the past. Similarly, the best paying jobs of the future are all jobs that currently exist today. Many of them will still exist in the future, but with some changes as technology and communication systems make their impact. As a rule of thumb, 60% of the jobs 10 years from now havent been invented yet. With that in mind, Ive decided to put together a list of some jobs that will be in high demand in the future. Jobs before 2020 Many of the changes we see today will cause new jobs to materialize quickly. This first section deals with new positions that will likely be developed within the next 10 years. 3D printing engineers Classes in 3D printing are already being introduced into high schools and the demand for printer-produced products will rise quickly. The trend will be for these worker-less workshops to enter virtually different fields, at the same time, driving the need for competent technicians and engineers to design and maintain the next wave of this technology. Nano-medics Health professionals capable of working on the nano-level, both in designing diagnostics systems, remedies, and monitoring solutions will be in high demand. Organ agents The demand for transplantable organs is exploding and people who can track down and deliver healthy organs will be in hot demand. Octogenarian service providers As the population continues to age we will have record numbers of people living into their 80s, 90s, and 100s. This growing group of active oldsters will provide a demand for goods and services currently not being addressed in todays marketplace. Jobs in 2030 and beyond A number of technologies currently on the drawing board will require a bit longer lead time before the industry comes into its own. Here are a few examples of these kinds of jobs: Body part limb makers The organ agents listed before will quickly find themselves out of work as soon as we figure out how to efficiently grow and mass produce our own organs from scratch. Earthquake forecasters While scientists are developing skills to work with nanoscale precision on the earths surface, the best we can know about below the surface is blindfolded guesswork done with 100-mile precision. What we dont know is literally killing us over 226,000 killed in 2010 alone. But that will change over time as we begin to understand the inner working of the earth and accurately forecast when the next big quakes are about to hit. Heavy air engineers Compressed air is useful in a wide variety of ways. However, we have yet to figure out how to compress streams of air as they pass through our existing atmosphere. Once we do, it will create untold opportunity for non-surface based housing and transportation system, weather control, and other kinds of experimentation. Final thoughts The jobs and occupations listed above are just scratching the surface. This list is intended to help stretch your imagination and start you down a path of imagining your own future. (Adapted from http://www.futuristspeaker.com/2011/11/55-jobs-of-the-future) This first section deals with new positions that will likely be developed within the next 10 years. The underlined word (line 15) is closest in meaning to

Questão
2015Inglês

(AFA 2015) (TEXTO 2) JOBS OF THE FUTURE There is no future in any job. The future lies in the person who holds the job. George W. Crane One of my primary complaints with higher education is that they tend to prepare students for jobs of the past. Similarly, the best paying jobs of the future are all jobs that currently exist today. Many of them will still exist in the future, but with some changes as technology and communication systems make their impact. As a rule of thumb, 60% of the jobs 10 years from now havent been invented yet. With that in mind, Ive decided to put together a list of some jobs that will be in high demand in the future. Jobs before 2020 Many of the changes we see today will cause new jobs to materialize quickly. This first section deals with new positions that will likely be developed within the next 10 years. 3D printing engineers Classes in 3D printing are already being introduced into high schools and the demand for printer-produced products will rise quickly. The trend will be for these worker-less workshops to enter virtually different fields, at the same time, driving the need for competent technicians and engineers to design and maintain the next wave of this technology. Nano-medics Health professionals capable of working on the nano-level, both in designing diagnostics systems, remedies, and monitoring solutions will be in high demand. Organ agents The demand for transplantable organs is exploding and people who can track down and deliver healthy organs will be in hot demand. Octogenarian service providers As the population continues to age we will have record numbers of people living into their 80s, 90s, and 100s. This growing group of active oldsters will provide a demand for goods and services currently not being addressed in todays marketplace. Jobs in 2030 and beyond A number of technologies currently on the drawing board will require a bit longer lead time before the industry comes into its own. Here are a few examples of these kinds of jobs: Body part limb makers The organ agents listed before will quickly find themselves out of work as soon as we figure out how to efficiently grow and mass produce our own organs from scratch. Earthquake forecasters While scientists are developing skills to work with nanoscale precision on the earths surface, the best we can know about below the surface is blindfolded guesswork done with 100-mile precision. What we dont know is literally killing us over 226,000 killed in 2010 alone. But that will change over time as we begin to understand the inner working of the earth and accurately forecast when the next big quakes are about to hit. Heavy air engineers Compressed air is useful in a wide variety of ways. However, we have yet to figure out how to compress streams of air as they pass through our existing atmosphere. Once we do, it will create untold opportunity for non-surface based housing and transportation system, weather control, and other kinds of experimentation. Final thoughts The jobs and occupations listed above are just scratching the surface. This list is intended to help stretch your imagination and start you down a path of imagining your own future. (Adapted from http://www.futuristspeaker.com/2011/11/55-jobs-of-the-future) Many of them will still exist in the future, but with some changes as technology and communication systems make their impact. The underlined word (line 4) refers to

Questão
2015Matemática

(Epcar (Afa) 2015) Considere o gráfico da função real g : A A abaixo e marque (V) verdadeiro ou (F) falso. ( ) A função g possui exatamente duas raízes. ( ) g(4) = -g(-3) ( ) Im(g) = {-3} ]-2, 4[ ( ) A função definida por h(x) = g(x) + 3 não possui raiz. ( ) (g g g ...g)(-2) = 2 A sequência correta é

Questão
2015Matemática

Seja o quadrado ABCD e o ponto E pertencente ao segmento AB . Sabendo-se que a área do triângulo ADE , a área do trapézio BCDE e a área do quadrado ABCD formam juntas, nessa ordem, uma Progressão Aritmética (P.A.) e a soma das áreas desses polígonos é igual a 800cm2, tem-se que a medida do segmento EB

Questão
2015Física

(Epcar (Afa) 2015) Em um chuveiro elétrico, submetido a uma tensão elétrica constante de 110 V, são dispostas quatro resistências ôhmicas, conforme figura abaixo. Faz-se passar pelas resistências um fluxo de água, a uma mesma temperatura, com uma vazão constante de 1,32 litros por minuto. Considere que a água tenha densidade de 1,0 g/cm3 e calor específico de 1,0 cal/go C, que 1 cal = 4 J e que toda energia elétrica fornecida ao chuveiro seja convertida em calor para aquecer, homogeneamente, a água. Nessas condições, a variação de temperatura da água, em oC, ao passar pelas resistências é

Questão
2015Inglês

JOBS AT HIGH RISK It is an invisible force that goes by many names. Computerization. Automation. Artificial intelligence. Technology. Innovation. And, everyones favorite, ROBOTS. Whatever name you prefer, some form of it has been stimulating progress and killing jobs from tailors to paralegals for centuries. But this time is different: nearly half of American jobs today could be automated in a decade or two. The question is: which half? Another way of posing the same question is: Where do machines work better than people? Tractors are more powerful than farmers. Robotic arms are stronger and more tireless than assembly-line workers. But in the past 30 years, software and robots have succeeded replacing a particular kind of occupation: the average-wage, middle-skill, routine-heavy worker, especially in manufacturing and office administration. Indeed, its projected that the next wave of computer progress will continue to endanger human work where it already has: manufacturing, administrative support, retail, and transportation. Most remaining factory jobs are likely to diminish over the next decades. Cashiers, counter clerks, and telemarketers are similarly endangered. On the other hand, health care workers, people responsible for our safety, and management positions are the least likely to be automated. The next big thing We might be on the edge of an innovating moment in robotics and artificial intelligence. Although the past 30 years have reduced the middle, high- and low-skill jobs have actually increased, as if protected from the invading armies of robots by their own moats. Higher-skill workers have been protected by a kind of social-intelligence moat. Computers are historically good at executing routines, but theyre bad at finding patterns, communicating with people, and making decisions, which is what managers are paid to do. This is why some people think managers are, for the moment, one of the largest categories immune to the fast wave of AI. Meanwhile, lower-skill workers have been protected by the Moravec moat. Hans Moravec was a futurist who pointed out that machine technology copied a savant infant: Machines could do long math equations instantly and beat anybody in chess, but they cant answer a simple question or walk up a flight of stairs. As a result, not skilled work done by people without much education (like home health care workers, or fast-food attendants) have been saved, too. The human half In the 19th century, new manufacturing technology replaced what was then skilled labor. In the second half of the 20th century, however, software technology took the place of median-salaried office work. The first wave showed that machines are better at assembling things. The second showed that machines are better at organizing things. Now data analytics and self-driving cars suggest they might be better at patternrecognition and driving. So what are we better at? The safest industries and jobs are dominated by managers, health-care workers, and a super-category that includes education, media, and community service. One conclusion to draw from this is that humans are, and will always be, superior at working with, and caring for other humans. In this light, automation doesnt make the world worse. Far from it: it creates new opportunities for human creativity. But robots are already creeping into diagnostics and surgeries. Schools are already experimenting with software that replaces teaching hours. The fact that some industries have been safe from automation for the last three decades doesnt guarantee that theyll be safe for the next one. It would be anxious enough if we knew exactly which jobs are next in line for automation. The truth is scarier. We dont really have a clue. (Adapted from http://www.businessinsider.com/robots-overtakingamerican-jobs-2014-1) Glossary: savant infant a child with great knowledge and ability to assemble to make something by joining separate parts to creep to move slowly, quietly and carefully According to the first paragraph, robots can be _____ by many names

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