Questões e gabarito - AFA 2017

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Questão 2
2017Português

(AFA - 2017) RETRATO Eu no tinha este rosto de hoje, Assim calmo, assim triste, assim magro, Nem estes olhos to vazios, Nem o lbio amargo Eu no tinha estas mos sem fora, To paradas e frias e mortas; Eu no tinha este corao Que nem se mostra. Eu no dei por esta mudana, To simples, to certa, to fcil: em que espelho ficou perdida a minha face? (MEIRELES, Ceclia. Obra Potica de Ceclia Meireles. Rio de Janeiro: Jos Aguilar, 1958.) Analisando os versos do poema Retrato, assinale a opo correta.

Questão 4
2017Português

(AFA - 2017) ENVELHECER Arnaldo Antunes/ Ortinho/ Marcelo Jeneci 1 A coisa mais moderna que existe nessa vida envelhecer 2 A barba vai descendo e os cabelos vo caindo pra cabea aparecer 3 Os filhos vo crescendo e o tempo vai dizendo que agora pra valer 4 Os outros vo morrendo e a gente aprendendo a esquecer 5 No quero morrer pois quero ver como ser que deve ser envelhecer 6 Eu quero viver para ver qual e dizer venha pra o que vai acontecer (...) 7 Pois ser eternamente adolescente nada mais dmod* com os ralos fios de cabelo sobre a testa que no para de crescer 8 No sei por que essa gente vira a cara pro presente e esquece de aprender 9 Que felizmente ou infelizmente sempre o tempo vai correr. (...) ( www.arnaldoantunes.com.br/new/sec_discografia_sel.php?id=679) * dmod: fora de moda. Assinale a opo que aponta corretamente a figura de linguagem presente no trecho abaixo. .

Questão 7
2017Português

(AFA - 2017) PARA SEMPRE JOVEM 1 - Recentemente, vi na televiso a propaganda de um jipe que saltava obstculos como se fosse um cavalo de corrida. J tinha visto esse comercial, mas comecei a prestar ateno na letra da msica, soando 5 - forte e repetindo a estrofe de uma cano muito conhecida, forever Young...I wanna live forever and Young...(para sempre jovem...quero viver para sempre e jovem). Ser que, realmente, queremos viver muito e, de preferncia, para sempre jovens? (...) 10 - O crescimento da populao idosa nos pases desenvolvidos uma bomba-relgio que j comea a implodir os sistemas previdencirios, despreparados para amparar populaes com uma mdia de vida em torno de 140 anos. A velhice se tornou uma epidemia 15 - incontrolvel nos pases desenvolvidos. Sustentar a populao idosa sobrecarrega os jovens, cada vez em menor nmero, pois, nesses pases, h tambm um declnio da natalidade. Ser isso socialmente justo? Uma pessoa muito longeva consome 20 - uma quantidade total de alimentos muito maior do que as outras, o que contribui para esgotar mais rapidamente os recursos finitos do planeta e agravar ainda mais os desequilbrios sociais. Para que uns poucos possam viver muito, outros tero de passar fome. Ser que, em 25 - um futuro breve, teremos uma guerra de extermnio aos idosos, como na fico do escritor argentino Bioy Casares, O dirio da guerra do porco? Seria uma guerra justa? /.../ (TEIXEIRA, Joo. Para sempre jovens.In: Revista Filosofia: cincia vida. Ano VII, n. 92, maro-2014, p. 54.) O emissor do texto apresenta um discurso parcial no qual se percebe uma viso bastante negativa do crescimento da populao idosa. Apenas um dos recursos abaixo NO foi utilizado para convencer o leitor de seu ponto de vista. Assinale-o.

Questão 8
2017Português

(AFA - 2017) PARA SEMPRE JOVEM 1 - Recentemente, vi na televiso a propaganda de um jipe que saltava obstculos como se fosse um cavalo de corrida. J tinha visto esse comercial, mas comecei a prestar ateno na letra da msica, soando 5 - forte e repetindo a estrofe de uma cano muito conhecida, forever Young...I wanna live forever and Young...(para sempre jovem...quero viver para sempre e jovem). Ser que, realmente, queremos viver muito e, de preferncia, para sempre jovens? (...) 10 - O crescimento da populao idosa nos pases desenvolvidos uma bomba-relgio que j comea a implodir os sistemas previdencirios, despreparados para amparar populaes com uma mdia de vida em torno de 140 anos. A velhice se tornou uma epidemia 15 - incontrolvel nos pases desenvolvidos. Sustentar a populao idosa sobrecarrega os jovens, cada vez em menor nmero, pois, nesses pases, h tambm um declnio da natalidade. Ser isso socialmente justo? Uma pessoa muito longeva consome 20 - uma quantidade total de alimentos muito maior do que as outras, o que contribui para esgotar mais rapidamente os recursos finitos do planeta e agravar ainda mais os desequilbrios sociais. Para que uns poucos possam viver muito, outros tero de passar fome. Ser que, em 25 - um futuro breve, teremos uma guerra de extermnio aos idosos, como na fico do escritor argentino Bioy Casares, O dirio da guerra do porco? Seria uma guerra justa? /.../ (TEIXEIRA, Joo. Para sempre jovens.In: Revista Filosofia: cincia vida. Ano VII, n. 92, maro-2014, p. 54.) Elementos de modalizao so responsveis por expressar intenes e pontos de vista do enunciador. Por intermdio deles, o enunciador inscreve no texto seus julgamentos e opinies sobre o contedo, fornecendo ao interlocutor pistas de reconhecimento do efeito de sentido que pretende produzir. Observe os elementos de modalizao destacados nos excertos e as respectivas anlises. I. ...e agravar ainda mais os desequilbrios sociais. (l.22 e 23) O advrbio destacado ratifica a ideia de que a situao que j catica vai piorar. II. ...tero de passar fome. (l.24) O verbo auxiliar utilizado ressalta a total falta de sada para os jovens. III. Ser que, realmente, queremos viver muito... (l.08) O advrbio utilizado refora o questionamento sobre o desejo de viver muito, presente no senso comum. IV. ...queremos viver muito e, de preferncia, para sempre jovens? (l.08 e 09) A locuo adverbial sugere que a vida longa ser tambm de qualidade. Apresentam afirmaes corretas as alternativas

Questão 10
2017Português

(AFA - 2017) PROMESSA CONTRA SINAIS DA IDADE O tempo passa, e com ele os sinais da idade vo se espalhando pelo nosso organismo. Entre eles, os mais evidentes ficam estampados em nossa pele, e rostos, na forma de rugas, flacidez e perda de elasticidade. 5 - Um estudo publicado ontem no peridico cientfico Journal of Investigative Dermatology, no entanto, identificou um mecanismo molecular em clulas da pele que pode estar por trs deste processo, abrindo caminho para o desenvolvimento de novos 10 - tratamentos para, se no impedir, pelo menos retardar o envelhecimento delas e, talvez, as de outros tecidos e rgos do corpo. Na pesquisa, cientistas da Universidade de Newcastle, no Reino Unido, analisaram amostras de 15 - clulas da pele de vinte e sete doadores com entre seis e 72 anos, tiradas de locais protegidos do Sol, para determinar se havia alguma diferena no seu comportamento com a idade. Eles verificaram que, quanto mais velha a pessoa, menor era a atividade de 20 - suas mitocndrias, as usinas de energia de nossas clulas. Essa queda, porm, era esperada, j que h dcadas a reduo na capacidade de gerao de energia por essas organelas celulares e na sua eficincia neste trabalho com o tempo uma das 25 - principais vertentes nas teorias sobre envelhecimento. /.../ (BAIMA, Csar. O Globo,27 de fev.2016, p.24.) Ao abordar um tema cientfico em um jornal, comum a prtica de empregar recursos para torn-lo mais acessvel e, portanto, mais atraente aos leitores comuns, no acostumados ao discurso cientfico. Observa-se que o texto V, com tal finalidade, apresenta os seguintes recursos, EXCETO:

Questão 11
2017Português

(AFA - 2017) PROMESSA CONTRA SINAIS DA IDADE O tempo passa, e com ele os sinais da idade vo se espalhando pelo nosso organismo. Entre eles, os mais evidentes ficam estampados em nossa pele, e rostos, na forma de rugas, flacidez e perda de elasticidade. 5 - Um estudo publicado ontem no peridico cientfico Journal of Investigative Dermatology, no entanto, identificou um mecanismo molecular em clulas da pele que pode estar por trs deste processo, abrindo caminho para o desenvolvimento de novos 10 - tratamentos para, se no impedir, pelo menos retardar o envelhecimento delas e, talvez, as de outros tecidos e rgos do corpo. Na pesquisa, cientistas da Universidade de Newcastle, no Reino Unido, analisaram amostras de 15 - clulas da pele de vinte e sete doadores com entre seis e 72 anos, tiradas de locais protegidos do Sol, para determinar se havia alguma diferena no seu comportamento com a idade. Eles verificaram que, quanto mais velha a pessoa, menor era a atividade de 20 - suas mitocndrias, as usinas de energia de nossas clulas. Essa queda, porm, era esperada, j que h dcadas a reduo na capacidade de gerao de energia por essas organelas celulares e na sua eficincia neste trabalho com o tempo uma das 25 - principais vertentes nas teorias sobre envelhecimento. /.../ (BAIMA, Csar. O Globo,27 de fev.2016, p.24.) Observe o uso da vrgula nos trechos abaixo destacados: I. O tempo passa, e com ele os sinais da idade vo se espalhando... (l.1 e 2) II. ...ficam estampados em nossa pele, e rostos, na forma... (l. 3 e 4 ) III. Eles verificaram que, quanto mais velha a pessoa, menor era a atividade de suas mitocndrias... (l.18 a 20) IV. Essa queda, porm, era esperada... (l.21) V. ...era esperada, j que h dcadas a reduo na capacidade de gerao de energia... (l. 21 a 23) Assinale a opo que apresenta uma anlise correta.

Questão 15
2017Português

(AFA - 2017) TEXTO I RETRATO Eu no tinha este rosto de hoje, Assim calmo, assim triste, assim magro, Nem estes olhos to vazios, Nem o lbio amargo Eu no tinha estas mos sem fora, To paradas e frias e mortas; Eu no tinha este corao Que nem se mostra. Eu no dei por esta mudana, To simples, to certa, to fcil: em que espelho ficou perdida a minha face? (MEIRELES, Ceclia. Obra Potica de Ceclia Meireles. Rio de Janeiro: Jos Aguilar, 1958.) TEXTO 2 ENVELHECER Arnaldo Antunes/ Ortinho/ Marcelo Jeneci 1 A coisa mais moderna que existe nessa vida envelhecer 2 A barba vai descendo e os cabelos vo caindo pra cabea aparecer 3 Os filhos vo crescendo e o tempo vai dizendo que agora pra valer 4 Os outros vo morrendo e a gente aprendendo a esquecer 5 No quero morrer pois quero ver como ser que deve ser envelhecer 6 Eu quero viver para ver qual e dizer venha pra o que vai acontecer (...) 7 Pois ser eternamente adolescente nada mais dmod* com os ralos fios de cabelo sobre a testa que no para de crescer 8 No sei por que essa gente vira a cara pro presente e esquece de aprender 9 Que felizmente ou infelizmente sempre o tempo vai correr. (...) ( www.arnaldoantunes.com.br/new/sec_discografia_sel.php?id=679) * dmod: fora de moda. TEXTO 3 ESTATUTO DO IDOSO (fragmentos) Art. 2 O idoso goza de todos os direitos fundamentais inerentes pessoa humana, sem prejuzo da proteo integral 1de que trata esta Lei, 2assegurando-se-lhe, por lei ou por outros meios, 3todas as oportunidades e facilidades, para 4preservao de sua sade fsica e mental e seu aperfeioamento moral, intelectual, espiritual e social, em condies de liberdade e dignidade. Art. 4 Nenhum idoso ser objeto de qualquer tipo de negligncia, discriminao, violncia, crueldade 5ou opresso, e todo atentado aos seus direitos, por ao ou por omisso, ser punido na forma da lei. www.planalto.gov.br/ccvil_03/leis/2003/L10.741.htm TEXTO 4 PARA SEMPRE JOVEM 1 - Recentemente, vi na televiso a propaganda de um jipe que saltava obstculos como se fosse um cavalo de corrida. J tinha visto esse comercial, mas comecei a prestar ateno na letra da msica, soando 5 - forte e repetindo a estrofe de uma cano muito conhecida, forever Young...I wanna live forever and Young...(para sempre jovem...quero viver para sempre e jovem). Ser que, realmente, queremos viver muito e, de preferncia, para sempre jovens? (...) 10 - O crescimento da populao idosa nos pases desenvolvidos uma bomba-relgio que j comea a implodir os sistemas previdencirios, despreparados para amparar populaes com uma mdia de vida em torno de 140 anos. A velhice se tornou uma epidemia 15 - incontrolvel nos pases desenvolvidos. Sustentar a populao idosa sobrecarrega os jovens, cada vez em menor nmero, pois, nesses pases, h tambm um declnio da natalidade. Ser isso socialmente justo? Uma pessoa muito longeva consome 20 - uma quantidade total de alimentos muito maior do que as outras, o que contribui para esgotar mais rapidamente os recursos finitos do planeta e agravar ainda mais os desequilbrios sociais. Para que uns poucos possam viver muito, outros tero de passar fome. Ser que, em 25 - um futuro breve, teremos uma guerra de extermnio aos idosos, como na fico do escritor argentino Bioy Casares, O dirio da guerra do porco? Seria uma guerra justa? /.../ (TEIXEIRA, Joo. Para sempre jovens.In: Revista Filosofia: cincia vida. Ano VII, n. 92, maro-2014, p. 54.) TEXTO 5 PROMESSA CONTRA SINAIS DA IDADE O tempo passa, e com ele os sinais da idade vo se espalhando pelo nosso organismo. Entre eles, os mais evidentes ficam estampados em nossa pele, e rostos, na forma de rugas, flacidez e perda de elasticidade. 5 - Um estudo publicado ontem no peridico cientfico Journal of Investigative Dermatology, no entanto, identificou um mecanismo molecular em clulas da pele que pode estar por trs deste processo, abrindo caminho para o desenvolvimento de novos 10 - tratamentos para, se no impedir, pelo menos retardar o envelhecimento delas e, talvez, as de outros tecidos e rgos do corpo. Na pesquisa, cientistas da Universidade de Newcastle, no Reino Unido, analisaram amostras de 15 - clulas da pele de vinte e sete doadores com entre seis e 72 anos, tiradas de locais protegidos do Sol, para determinar se havia alguma diferena no seu comportamento com a idade. Eles verificaram que, quanto mais velha a pessoa, menor era a atividade de 20 - suas mitocndrias, as usinas de energia de nossas clulas. Essa queda, porm, era esperada, j que h dcadas a reduo na capacidade de gerao de energia por essas organelas celulares e na sua eficincia neste trabalho com o tempo uma das 25 - principais vertentes nas teorias sobre envelhecimento. /.../ (BAIMA, Csar. O Globo,27 de fev.2016, p.24.) Nos textos em geral, manifestam-se simultaneamente vrias funes da linguagem. No entanto, sempre h o predomnio de uma sobre as outras. Aps a leitura dos textos que constituem esta prova, assinale a alternativa correta.

Questão 16
2017Português

(AFA - 2017) TEXTO I RETRATO Eu no tinha este rosto de hoje, Assim calmo, assim triste, assim magro, Nem estes olhos to vazios, Nem o lbio amargo Eu no tinha estas mos sem fora, To paradas e frias e mortas; Eu no tinha este corao Que nem se mostra. Eu no dei por esta mudana, To simples, to certa, to fcil: em que espelho ficou perdida a minha face? (MEIRELES, Ceclia. Obra Potica de Ceclia Meireles. Rio de Janeiro: Jos Aguilar, 1958.) TEXTO 2 ENVELHECER Arnaldo Antunes/ Ortinho/ Marcelo Jeneci 1 A coisa mais moderna que existe nessa vida envelhecer 2 A barba vai descendo e os cabelos vo caindo pra cabea aparecer 3 Os filhos vo crescendo e o tempo vai dizendo que agora pra valer 4 Os outros vo morrendo e a gente aprendendo a esquecer 5 No quero morrer pois quero ver como ser que deve ser envelhecer 6 Eu quero viver para ver qual e dizer venha pra o que vai acontecer (...) 7 Pois ser eternamente adolescente nada mais dmod* com os ralos fios de cabelo sobre a testa que no para de crescer 8 No sei por que essa gente vira a cara pro presente e esquece de aprender 9 Que felizmente ou infelizmente sempre o tempo vai correr. (...) ( www.arnaldoantunes.com.br/new/sec_discografia_sel.php?id=679) * dmod: fora de moda. TEXTO 3 ESTATUTO DO IDOSO (fragmentos) Art. 2 O idoso goza de todos os direitos fundamentais inerentes pessoa humana, sem prejuzo da proteo integral 1de que trata esta Lei, 2assegurando-se-lhe, por lei ou por outros meios, 3todas as oportunidades e facilidades, para 4preservao de sua sade fsica e mental e seu aperfeioamento moral, intelectual, espiritual e social, em condies de liberdade e dignidade. Art. 4 Nenhum idoso ser objeto de qualquer tipo de negligncia, discriminao, violncia, crueldade 5ou opresso, e todo atentado aos seus direitos, por ao ou por omisso, ser punido na forma da lei. www.planalto.gov.br/ccvil_03/leis/2003/L10.741.htm TEXTO 4 PARA SEMPRE JOVEM 1 - Recentemente, vi na televiso a propaganda de um jipe que saltava obstculos como se fosse um cavalo de corrida. J tinha visto esse comercial, mas comecei a prestar ateno na letra da msica, soando 5 - forte e repetindo a estrofe de uma cano muito conhecida, forever Young...I wanna live forever and Young...(para sempre jovem...quero viver para sempre e jovem). Ser que, realmente, queremos viver muito e, de preferncia, para sempre jovens? (...) 10 - O crescimento da populao idosa nos pases desenvolvidos uma bomba-relgio que j comea a implodir os sistemas previdencirios, despreparados para amparar populaes com uma mdia de vida em torno de 140 anos. A velhice se tornou uma epidemia 15 - incontrolvel nos pases desenvolvidos. Sustentar a populao idosa sobrecarrega os jovens, cada vez em menor nmero, pois, nesses pases, h tambm um declnio da natalidade. Ser isso socialmente justo? Uma pessoa muito longeva consome 20 - uma quantidade total de alimentos muito maior do que as outras, o que contribui para esgotar mais rapidamente os recursos finitos do planeta e agravar ainda mais os desequilbrios sociais. Para que uns poucos possam viver muito, outros tero de passar fome. Ser que, em 25 - um futuro breve, teremos uma guerra de extermnio aos idosos, como na fico do escritor argentino Bioy Casares, O dirio da guerra do porco? Seria uma guerra justa? /.../ (TEIXEIRA, Joo. Para sempre jovens.In: Revista Filosofia: cincia vida. Ano VII, n. 92, maro-2014, p. 54.) TEXTO 5 PROMESSA CONTRA SINAIS DA IDADE O tempo passa, e com ele os sinais da idade vo se espalhando pelo nosso organismo. Entre eles, os mais evidentes ficam estampados em nossa pele, e rostos, na forma de rugas, flacidez e perda de elasticidade. 5 - Um estudo publicado ontem no peridico cientfico Journal of Investigative Dermatology, no entanto, identificou um mecanismo molecular em clulas da pele que pode estar por trs deste processo, abrindo caminho para o desenvolvimento de novos 10 - tratamentos para, se no impedir, pelo menos retardar o envelhecimento delas e, talvez, as de outros tecidos e rgos do corpo. Na pesquisa, cientistas da Universidade de Newcastle, no Reino Unido, analisaram amostras de 15 - clulas da pele de vinte e sete doadores com entre seis e 72 anos, tiradas de locais protegidos do Sol, para determinar se havia alguma diferena no seu comportamento com a idade. Eles verificaram que, quanto mais velha a pessoa, menor era a atividade de 20 - suas mitocndrias, as usinas de energia de nossas clulas. Essa queda, porm, era esperada, j que h dcadas a reduo na capacidade de gerao de energia por essas organelas celulares e na sua eficincia neste trabalho com o tempo uma das 25 - principais vertentes nas teorias sobre envelhecimento. /.../ (BAIMA, Csar. O Globo,27 de fev.2016, p.24.) Em todos os trechos apresentados, o emprego do termo destacado constitui uma estratgia do autor para criar envolvimento entre o receptor e a mensagem transmitida pelo texto, EXCETO:

Questão 17
2017Matemática

(AFA - 2017) A funo real f definida por, sendo a e b constantes reais, est graficamente representada abaixo. Pode-se afirmar que o produto (a.b) pertence ao intervalo real

Questão 21
2017Matemática

(AFA - 2017) No grfico abaixo esto representadas as funes e Sobre estas funes correto afirmar que

Questão 31
2017Matemática

(AFA - 2017)Se uma pirmide hexagonal regular est inscrita num cone equiltero cujo volume igual a cm, ento o volume dessa pirmide, em cm, igual a

Questão 44
2017Inglês

(AFA - 2017) TEXT Howard Gardner: Multiple intelligences are not learning styles by Valerie Strauss The fields of psychology and education were revolutionized 30 years ago when we now world- renowned psychologist Howard Gardner published his 1983 book Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple 5 - Intelligences, which detailed a new model of human intelligence that went beyond the traditional view that there was a single kind that could be measured by standardized tests. Gardners theory initially listed seven intelligences 10 - which work together: linguistic, logical-mathematical, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal and intrapersonal; he later added an eighth, naturalist intelligence and says there may be a few more. The theory became highly popular with K-12 educators1 15 - around the world seeking ways to reach students who did not respond to traditional approaches, but over time, multiple intelligences somehow became synonymous with the concept of learning styles. In this important post, Gardner explains why the former is not the latter. 20 - Its been 30 years since I developed the notion of multiple intelligences. I have been gratified by the interest shown in this idea and the ways its been used in schools, museums, and business around the world. But one unanticipated consequence has driven me to 25 - distraction and thats the tendency of many people, including persons whom I cherish, to credit me with the notion of learning styles or to collapse multiple intelligences with learning styles. Its high time to relieve my pain and to set the record straight. 30 - First a word about MI theory. On the basis of research in several disciplines, including the study of how human capacities are represented in the brain, I developed the idea that each of us has a number of relatively independent mental faculties, which can be 35 - termed our multiple intelligences. The basic idea is simplicity itself. A belief in a single intelligence assumes that we have one central, all-purpose computer, and it determines how well we perform in every sector of life. In contrast, a belief in multiple intelligences assumes that 40 - human beings have 7 to 10 distinct intelligences. Even before I spoke and wrote about MI, the term learning styles was being bandied about in educational circles. The idea, reasonable enough on the surface, is that all children (indeed all of us) have distinctive minds 45 - and personalities. Accordingly, it makes sense to find out about learners and to teach and nurture them in ways that are appropriate, that they value, and above all, are effective. Two problems: first, the notion of learning styles is 50 - itself not coherent. Those who use this term do not define the criteria for a style, nor where styles come from, how they are recognized/ assessed/ exploited. Say that Johnny is said to have a learning style that is impulsive. Does that mean that Johnny is impulsive 55 - about everything? How do we know this? What does this imply about teaching? Should we teach impulsively, or should we compensate by teaching reflectively? What of learning style is right-brained or visual or tactile? Same issues apply. 60 - Problem #2: when researchers have tried to identify learning styles, teach consistently with those styles, and examine outcomes, there is not persuasive evidence that the learning style analysis produces more effective outcomes than a one size fits all approach. Of course, 65 the learning style analysis might have been inadequate. Or even if it is on the mark, the fact that one intervention did not work does not mean that the concept of learning styles is fatally imperfect; another intervention might have proved effective. Absence of evidence does not 70 - prove non-existence of a phenomenon; it signals to educational researchers: back to the drawing boards. Heres my considered judgment about the best way to analyze this lexical terrain: Intelligence: We all have the multiple intelligences. But 75 - we signed out, as a strong intelligence, an area where the person has considerable computational power. Style or learning style: A hypothesis of how an individual approaches the range of materials. If an individual has a reflective style, he/she is hypothesized to be reflective 80 - about the full range of materials. We cannot assume that reflectiveness in writing necessarily signals reflectiveness in ones interaction with the others. Senses: Sometimes people speak about a visual learner or an auditory learner. The implication is that 85 - some people learn through their eyes, others through their ears. This notion is incoherent. Both spatial information and reading occur with the eyes, but they make use of entirely different cognitive faculties. What matters is the power of the mental computer, the 90 - intelligence that acts upon that sensory information once picked up. These distinctions are consequential. If people want to talk about an impulsive style or a visual learner, thats their prerogative. But they should recognize that 95 - these labels may be unhelpful, at best, and ill-conceived at worst. In contrast, there is strong evidence that human beings have a range of intelligences and that strength (or weakness) in one intelligence does not predict strength 100 - (or weakness) in any other intelligences. All of us exhibit jagged profiles of intelligences. There are common sense ways of assessing our own intelligences, and even if it seems appropriate, we can take a more formal test battery. And then, as teachers, parents, or self- 105 - assessors, we can decide how best to make use of this information. (Adapted from https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/answer-sheet) Glossary: 1. K-12 educators defend the adoption of an interdisciplinary curriculum and methods for teaching with objects. The expression one size fits all approach (line 64) means

Questão 45
2017Inglês

(AFA - 2017) TEXT Howard Gardner: Multiple intelligences are not learning styles by Valerie Strauss The fields of psychology and education were revolutionized 30 years ago when we now world- renowned psychologist Howard Gardner published his 1983 book Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple 5 - Intelligences, which detailed a new model of human intelligence that went beyond the traditional view that there was a single kind that could be measured by standardized tests. Gardners theory initially listed seven intelligences 10 - which work together: linguistic, logical-mathematical, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal and intrapersonal; he later added an eighth, naturalist intelligence and says there may be a few more. The theory became highly popular with K-12 educators1 15 - around the world seeking ways to reach students who did not respond to traditional approaches, but over time, multiple intelligences somehow became synonymous with the concept of learning styles. In this important post, Gardner explains why the former is not the latter. 20 - Its been 30 years since I developed the notion of multiple intelligences. I have been gratified by the interest shown in this idea and the ways its been used in schools, museums, and business around the world. But one unanticipated consequence has driven me to 25 - distraction and thats the tendency of many people, including persons whom I cherish, to credit me with the notion of learning styles or to collapse multiple intelligences with learning styles. Its high time to relieve my pain and to set the record straight. 30 - First a word about MI theory. On the basis of research in several disciplines, including the study of how human capacities are represented in the brain, I developed the idea that each of us has a number of relatively independent mental faculties, which can be 35 - termed our multiple intelligences. The basic idea is simplicity itself. A belief in a single intelligence assumes that we have one central, all-purpose computer, and it determines how well we perform in every sector of life. In contrast, a belief in multiple intelligences assumes that 40 - human beings have 7 to 10 distinct intelligences. Even before I spoke and wrote about MI, the term learning styles was being bandied about in educational circles. The idea, reasonable enough on the surface, is that all children (indeed all of us) have distinctive minds 45 - and personalities. Accordingly, it makes sense to find out about learners and to teach and nurture them in ways that are appropriate, that they value, and above all, are effective. Two problems: first, the notion of learning styles is 50 - itself not coherent. Those who use this term do not define the criteria for a style, nor where styles come from, how they are recognized/ assessed/ exploited. Say that Johnny is said to have a learning style that is impulsive. Does that mean that Johnny is impulsive 55 - about everything? How do we know this? What does this imply about teaching? Should we teach impulsively, or should we compensate by teaching reflectively? What of learning style is right-brained or visual or tactile? Same issues apply. 60 - Problem #2: when researchers have tried to identify learning styles, teach consistently with those styles, and examine outcomes, there is not persuasive evidence that the learning style analysis produces more effective outcomes than a one size fits all approach. Of course, 65 the learning style analysis might have been inadequate. Or even if it is on the mark, the fact that one intervention did not work does not mean that the concept of learning styles is fatally imperfect; another intervention might have proved effective. Absence of evidence does not 70 - prove non-existence of a phenomenon; it signals to educational researchers: back to the drawing boards. Heres my considered judgment about the best way to analyze this lexical terrain: Intelligence: We all have the multiple intelligences. But 75 - we signed out, as a strong intelligence, an area where the person has considerable computational power. Style or learning style: A hypothesis of how an individual approaches the range of materials. If an individual has a reflective style, he/she is hypothesized to be reflective 80 - about the full range of materials. We cannot assume that reflectiveness in writing necessarily signals reflectiveness in ones interaction with the others. Senses: Sometimes people speak about a visual learner or an auditory learner. The implication is that 85 - some people learn through their eyes, others through their ears. This notion is incoherent. Both spatial information and reading occur with the eyes, but they make use of entirely different cognitive faculties. What matters is the power of the mental computer, the 90 - intelligence that acts upon that sensory information once picked up. These distinctions are consequential. If people want to talk about an impulsive style or a visual learner, thats their prerogative. But they should recognize that 95 - these labels may be unhelpful, at best, and ill-conceived at worst. In contrast, there is strong evidence that human beings have a range of intelligences and that strength (or weakness) in one intelligence does not predict strength 100 - (or weakness) in any other intelligences. All of us exhibit jagged profiles of intelligences. There are common sense ways of assessing our own intelligences, and even if it seems appropriate, we can take a more formal test battery. And then, as teachers, parents, or self- 105 - assessors, we can decide how best to make use of this information. (Adapted from https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/answer-sheet) Glossary: 1. K-12 educators defend the adoption of an interdisciplinary curriculum and methods for teaching with objects. Mark the option which shows the appropriate plural form for the word phenomenon (line 70).

Questão 47
2017Inglês

(AFA - 2017) TEXT Howard Gardner: Multiple intelligences are not learning styles by Valerie Strauss The fields of psychology and education were revolutionized 30 years ago when we now world- renowned psychologist Howard Gardner published his 1983 book Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple 5 - Intelligences, which detailed a new model of human intelligence that went beyond the traditional view that there was a single kind that could be measured by standardized tests. Gardners theory initially listed seven intelligences 10 - which work together: linguistic, logical-mathematical, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal and intrapersonal; he later added an eighth, naturalist intelligence and says there may be a few more. The theory became highly popular with K-12 educators1 15 - around the world seeking ways to reach students who did not respond to traditional approaches, but over time, multiple intelligences somehow became synonymous with the concept of learning styles. In this important post, Gardner explains why the former is not the latter. 20 - Its been 30 years since I developed the notion of multiple intelligences. I have been gratified by the interest shown in this idea and the ways its been used in schools, museums, and business around the world. But one unanticipated consequence has driven me to 25 - distraction and thats the tendency of many people, including persons whom I cherish, to credit me with the notion of learning styles or to collapse multiple intelligences with learning styles. Its high time to relieve my pain and to set the record straight. 30 - First a word about MI theory. On the basis of research in several disciplines, including the study of how human capacities are represented in the brain, I developed the idea that each of us has a number of relatively independent mental faculties, which can be 35 - termed our multiple intelligences. The basic idea is simplicity itself. A belief in a single intelligence assumes that we have one central, all-purpose computer, and it determines how well we perform in every sector of life. In contrast, a belief in multiple intelligences assumes that 40 - human beings have 7 to 10 distinct intelligences. Even before I spoke and wrote about MI, the term learning styles was being bandied about in educational circles. The idea, reasonable enough on the surface, is that all children (indeed all of us) have distinctive minds 45 - and personalities. Accordingly, it makes sense to find out about learners and to teach and nurture them in ways that are appropriate, that they value, and above all, are effective. Two problems: first, the notion of learning styles is 50 - itself not coherent. Those who use this term do not define the criteria for a style, nor where styles come from, how they are recognized/ assessed/ exploited. Say that Johnny is said to have a learning style that is impulsive. Does that mean that Johnny is impulsive 55 - about everything? How do we know this? What does this imply about teaching? Should we teach impulsively, or should we compensate by teaching reflectively? What of learning style is right-brained or visual or tactile? Same issues apply. 60 - Problem #2: when researchers have tried to identify learning styles, teach consistently with those styles, and examine outcomes, there is not persuasive evidence that the learning style analysis produces more effective outcomes than a one size fits all approach. Of course, 65 the learning style analysis might have been inadequate. Or even if it is on the mark, the fact that one intervention did not work does not mean that the concept of learning styles is fatally imperfect; another intervention might have proved effective. Absence of evidence does not 70 - prove non-existence of a phenomenon; it signals to educational researchers: back to the drawing boards. Heres my considered judgment about the best way to analyze this lexical terrain: Intelligence: We all have the multiple intelligences. But 75 - we signed out, as a strong intelligence, an area where the person has considerable computational power. Style or learning style: A hypothesis of how an individual approaches the range of materials. If an individual has a reflective style, he/she is hypothesized to be reflective 80 - about the full range of materials. We cannot assume that reflectiveness in writing necessarily signals reflectiveness in ones interaction with the others. Senses: Sometimes people speak about a visual learner or an auditory learner. The implication is that 85 - some people learn through their eyes, others through their ears. This notion is incoherent. Both spatial information and reading occur with the eyes, but they make use of entirely different cognitive faculties. What matters is the power of the mental computer, the 90 - intelligence that acts upon that sensory information once picked up. These distinctions are consequential. If people want to talk about an impulsive style or a visual learner, thats their prerogative. But they should recognize that 95 - these labels may be unhelpful, at best, and ill-conceived at worst. In contrast, there is strong evidence that human beings have a range of intelligences and that strength (or weakness) in one intelligence does not predict strength 100 - (or weakness) in any other intelligences. All of us exhibit jagged profiles of intelligences. There are common sense ways of assessing our own intelligences, and even if it seems appropriate, we can take a more formal test battery. And then, as teachers, parents, or self- 105 - assessors, we can decide how best to make use of this information. (Adapted from https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/answer-sheet) Glossary: 1. K-12 educators defend the adoption of an interdisciplinary curriculum and methods for teaching with objects. Choose the option that shows the indirect speech form for These distinctions are consequential. (line 92). Gardner

Questão 48
2017Inglês

(AFA - 2017) TEXT Howard Gardner: Multiple intelligences are not learning styles by Valerie Strauss The fields of psychology and education were revolutionized 30 years ago when we now world- renowned psychologist Howard Gardner published his 1983 book Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple 5 - Intelligences, which detailed a new model of human intelligence that went beyond the traditional view that there was a single kind that could be measured by standardized tests. Gardners theory initially listed seven intelligences 10 - which work together: linguistic, logical-mathematical, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal and intrapersonal; he later added an eighth, naturalist intelligence and says there may be a few more. The theory became highly popular with K-12 educators1 15 - around the world seeking ways to reach students who did not respond to traditional approaches, but over time, multiple intelligences somehow became synonymous with the concept of learning styles. In this important post, Gardner explains why the former is not the latter. 20 - Its been 30 years since I developed the notion of multiple intelligences. I have been gratified by the interest shown in this idea and the ways its been used in schools, museums, and business around the world. But one unanticipated consequence has driven me to 25 - distraction and thats the tendency of many people, including persons whom I cherish, to credit me with the notion of learning styles or to collapse multiple intelligences with learning styles. Its high time to relieve my pain and to set the record straight. 30 - First a word about MI theory. On the basis of research in several disciplines, including the study of how human capacities are represented in the brain, I developed the idea that each of us has a number of relatively independent mental faculties, which can be 35 - termed our multiple intelligences. The basic idea is simplicity itself. A belief in a single intelligence assumes that we have one central, all-purpose computer, and it determines how well we perform in every sector of life. In contrast, a belief in multiple intelligences assumes that 40 - human beings have 7 to 10 distinct intelligences. Even before I spoke and wrote about MI, the term learning styles was being bandied about in educational circles. The idea, reasonable enough on the surface, is that all children (indeed all of us) have distinctive minds 45 - and personalities. Accordingly, it makes sense to find out about learners and to teach and nurture them in ways that are appropriate, that they value, and above all, are effective. Two problems: first, the notion of learning styles is 50 - itself not coherent. Those who use this term do not define the criteria for a style, nor where styles come from, how they are recognized/ assessed/ exploited. Say that Johnny is said to have a learning style that is impulsive. Does that mean that Johnny is impulsive 55 - about everything? How do we know this? What does this imply about teaching? Should we teach impulsively, or should we compensate by teaching reflectively? What of learning style is right-brained or visual or tactile? Same issues apply. 60 - Problem #2: when researchers have tried to identify learning styles, teach consistently with those styles, and examine outcomes, there is not persuasive evidence that the learning style analysis produces more effective outcomes than a one size fits all approach. Of course, 65 the learning style analysis might have been inadequate. Or even if it is on the mark, the fact that one intervention did not work does not mean that the concept of learning styles is fatally imperfect; another intervention might have proved effective. Absence of evidence does not 70 - prove non-existence of a phenomenon; it signals to educational researchers: back to the drawing boards. Heres my considered judgment about the best way to analyze this lexical terrain: Intelligence: We all have the multiple intelligences. But 75 - we signed out, as a strong intelligence, an area where the person has considerable computational power. Style or learning style: A hypothesis of how an individual approaches the range of materials. If an individual has a reflective style, he/she is hypothesized to be reflective 80 - about the full range of materials. We cannot assume that reflectiveness in writing necessarily signals reflectiveness in ones interaction with the others. Senses: Sometimes people speak about a visual learner or an auditory learner. The implication is that 85 - some people learn through their eyes, others through their ears. This notion is incoherent. Both spatial information and reading occur with the eyes, but they make use of entirely different cognitive faculties. What matters is the power of the mental computer, the 90 - intelligence that acts upon that sensory information once picked up. These distinctions are consequential. If people want to talk about an impulsive style or a visual learner, thats their prerogative. But they should recognize that 95 - these labels may be unhelpful, at best, and ill-conceived at worst. In contrast, there is strong evidence that human beings have a range of intelligences and that strength (or weakness) in one intelligence does not predict strength 100 - (or weakness) in any other intelligences. All of us exhibit jagged profiles of intelligences. There are common sense ways of assessing our own intelligences, and even if it seems appropriate, we can take a more formal test battery. And then, as teachers, parents, or self- 105 - assessors, we can decide how best to make use of this information. (Adapted from https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/answer-sheet) Glossary: 1. K-12 educators defend the adoption of an interdisciplinary curriculum and methods for teaching with objects. According to the last paragraph

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