(Unicamp 2019 - 1ª fase) Indigenous people in Brazil seek out cities, end up in slums RIO DE JANEIRO – The dancers shake seed-filled maracas and raise their voices in song, conjuring an ancient spirit that vibrates above the traffic roaring from a nearby expressway and the beat of funk music blasting from a neighbor's loudspeaker. In this Brazilian favela, the indigenous people are struggling to keep some of their raditions alive that, besides providing a sense of community, helps them endure the discrimination they face in the city. Forced out of their native lands by deforestation, miners and farmers, nearly one in four Brazilian Indians nowadays live in urban areas and an estimated 22,000 of them now call the crowded favelas their home. Life in the slums, despite its difficulties, has its advantages. "The slums are the one place in the city where you have the kind of solidarity we Indians have in the villages." said a Pataxó woman who lives in Rio de Janeiro’s Maré Complex. (Adaptado de Associated Press, Indigenous people in Brazil seek out cities, end up in slums, Dailymail, 16/09/2014. ) Assinale a alternativa que indica corretamente os fenômenos geográficos mencionados no texto a respeito das populações indígenas.
(Unicamp 2019 - 1ª fase) Touching thermal-paper receipts could extend BPA retention in the body When people handle receipts printed on thermal paper containing the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA), the toxic chemical could linger in the body for a week or more. Jonathan W. Martin of Stockholm University and Jiaying Liu of the University of Alberta asked six male volunteers to handle paper containing isotopically labeled BPA for five minutes.The volunteers then put on nitrile gloves, wore them for two hours, removed them, and washed their hands with soap. Afterward, the researchers measured the labeled BPA and its metabolites in the volunteers’ urine regularly for two days and then once again a week later. The study only traced the isotopically labeled (deuterated) BPA and its metabolites, so any additional BPA exposure from other sources was not monitored. (Deirdre Lockwood, Touching thermal-paper receipts could extend BPA retention in the body. Chemical & Engineering News, 04/09/2017.) O texto discorre sobre uma pesquisa cujo objetivo foi
(Unicamp 2019 - 1ª fase) Largest prime number discovered: with more than 23m digits Known simply as M77232917, the figure is arrived at by calculating two to the power of 77,232,917 and subtracting one, leaving a gargantuan string of 23,249,425 digits. The result is nearly one million digits longer than the previous record holder discovered in January 2016. The number belongs to a rare group of so-called Mersenne prime numbers, named after the 17th century French monk Marin Mersenne. Like any prime number, a Mersenne prime is divisible only by itself and one, but is derived by multiplying twos together over and over before taking away one. The previous record-holding number was the 49th Mersenne prime ever found, making the new one the 50th. (Adaptado de Ian Sample, “Largest prime number discovered: with more than 23m digits”. The Guardian, 04/ 01/2018.) Considerando as informações contidas no excerto anterior, qual dos números a seguir é um primo de Mersenne?
(Unicamp 2019 - 1ª fase) Este cartum foi criado pelo norte-americano Bruce Beattie, em 2011. Nele, o cartunista faz uso da ironia para
(Unicamp 2019 - 1ª fase) We raise girls to cater to the fragile egos of men. We teach girls do shrink themselves, to make themselves smaller. We tell girls ‘You can have ambition, but not too much’. ‘You should aim to be successful, but not too successful, otherwise you will threaten the man’. (…) We teach girls shame – ‘Close your legs, cover yourself!’. We make them feel as though by being born female, they’re already guilty of something. And so, girls grow up to be women Who cannot see they have desire. They grow up to be women who silence themselves. They grow up to be women Who cannot say what they truly think. And they grow up – and this is the worst thing we do to girls – to be women Who turn pretense into an art form. (Adaptado da palestra “We should all be feminists”, 15/07/2009. Disponível em https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hg3umXU_qWc&t=797s. Acessado em 14/05/2018.) O texto anterior reproduz trechos de uma palestra proferida pela escritora nigeriana Chimamanda Adichie em 2009. Segundo a autora, o fato de serem criadas para agradar aos homens faz com que as mulheres
(Unicamp 2019 - 1ª fase) ‘Yes, I’m Italian – but I’m not loud, I don’t gesticulate and I’m not good with pizza’ Elena Ferrante I love my country, but I have no patriotic spirit and no national pride. What’s more, I digest pizza poorly, I eat very little spaghetti, I don’t speak in a loud voice, I don’t gesticulate, I hate all mafias, I don’t exclaim “Mamma mia!” National characteristics are simplifications that should be contested. Being Italian, for me, begins and ends with the fact that I speak and write in the Italian language. Put that way it doesn’t seem like much, but really it’s a lot. A language is a compendium of the history, geography,material and spiritual life, the vices and virtues, not only of those who speak it, but also of those who have spoken it through the centuries. When I say that I’m Italian because I write in Italian, I mean that I’m fully Italian in the only way that I’m willing to attribute to myself a nationality. I don’t like the other ways, especially when they become nationalism, chauvinism, and imperialism. (Adaptado de Elena Ferrante, ‘Yes, I´m Italian – but I´m not loud, I don´t gesticulate and I´m not good with pizza’, The Guardian, 24/02/2018.) Transcrevem-se, a seguir, versos de canções brasileiras e de um poema de Vinícius de Moraes. Assinale a alternativa que melhor exemplifica as afirmações de Elena Ferrante.
(Unicamp 2019 - 1ª fase) Love is not all By Edna St. Vincent Millay Love is not all: It is not meat nor drink Nor slumber nor a roof against the rain; Nor yet a floating spar to men that sink And rise and sink and rise and sink again; Love cannot fill the thickened lung with breath, Nor clean the blood, nor set the fractured bone; Yet many a man is making friends with death Even as I speak, for lack of love alone. It well may be that in a difficult hour, Pinned down by need and moaning for release, Or nagged by want past resolution's power, I might be driven to sell your love for peace, Or trade the memory of this night for food. It may well be. I do not think I would. (Disponível em https://www.poemhunter.com/. Acessado em 28/05/2018.) De acordo com o poema,
(Unicamp 2019 - 1ª fase) Genetic Fortune-Telling One day, babies will get DNA report cards at birth. These reports will offer predictions about their chances of suffering a heart attack or cancer, of getting hooked on tobacco, and of being smarter than average. Though the new DNA tests offer probabilities, not diagnoses, they could greatly benefit medicine. For example, if women at high risk for breast cancer got more mammograms and those at low risk got fewer, those exams might catch more real cancers and set off fewer false alarms. The trouble is, the predictions are far from perfect. What if someone with a low risk score for cancer puts off being screened, and then develops cancer anyway? Polygenic scores are also controversial because they can predict any trait, not only diseases. For instance, they can now forecast about 10 percent of a person’s performance on IQ tests. But how will parents and educators use that information? (Adaptado de Derek Brahney, Genetic Fortune-Telling. MIT Technology Review, Março/Abril 2018) De acordo com o texto, um dos riscos do prognóstico genético dos indivíduos desde o nascimento seria o de
17. (Unicamp 2017) Survey of geopolitics Geopolitics is a product of its time, and its definitions have evolved accordingly. Rudolphh Kjellén, who coined the term in 1899, described geopolitics as “the theory of the state as a geographical organism or phenomenon in space.” For Karl Haushofer, the father of German geopolotik, “Geopolitics is the new national science of the state,(…) a doctrine on the spatial determinism of all political processes, based on the broad foundations of geography, especially of political geography”. On the eve of World War II, Derwent Whittlesey, the American political geographer, considered geopolitics “a dogma*... the faith that the state is inherently entitled to its place in the sun”. Richard Hartshorne defined it as “geography utilized for particular purposes that lie beyond the pursuit of scientific knowledge”. Adaptado de Saul Bernard Cohen, Geopolitics of the world system. Boston: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2003. p. 11. *Dogma: a belief or set of beliefs held by a group or organization, which others are expected to accept without argument. Conforme o texto,
(UNICAMP - 2017) The Birth of My Kitchen-Table Fiction By Haruki Murakami Most people – most of us who are part of Japanese society – graduate from school, then find work, then, after some time has passed, get married. Even I originally intended to follow that pattern. Yet in reality I married, then started working, then finally managed to graduate. In other words, the order I chose was the exact opposite to what was considered normal. Since I hated the idea of working for a company, I decided to open my own establishment, a place where people could go to listen to jazz records, have a coffee, eat snacks and drink. It was a simple, rather happy-go-lucky kind of idea: running a business like that would let me relax listening to my favorite music from morning till night. O autor do texto
(UNICAMP - 2017) Considerando o nome da figura - “The Small Talk Thermometer” -, pode-se depreender que a expressão “small talk” se refere a