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Questão 25
2020Inglês

(UERJ - 2020) THE POWER OF METAPHORS Imagine your city isnt as safe as it used to be. Robberies are on the rise, home invasions are increasing and murder rates have nearly doubled in the past three years. What should city officials do about it? Hire more cops to round up the thugs and lock them away in a growing network of prisons? Or design programs that promise more peace by addressing issues like a faltering economy and underperforming schools? Your answer and the reasoning behind it can hinge on the metaphor being used to describe the problem, according to new research by Stanford psychologists. Your thinking can even be swayed with just one word, they say. Psychology Assistant Professor Lera Boroditsky and doctoral candidate Paul Thibodeau were curious about how subtle cues and common figures of speech can frame approaches to difficult problems. Some estimates suggest that one out of every 25 words we encounter is a metaphor, said Thibodeau, the studys lead author. But we didnt know the extent to which these metaphors influence people. In five experiments, test subjects were asked to read short paragraphs about rising crime rates in the fictional city of Addison and answer questions about the city. The researchers gauged how people answered these questions in light of how crime was described as a beast or a virus. They found the test subjects proposed solutions differed a great deal depending on the metaphor they were exposed to. The results have shown that people will likely support an increase in police forces and jailing of offenders if crime is described as a beast preying on a community. But if people are told crime is a virus infecting a city, they are more inclined to treat the problem with social reform. According to Boroditsky: People like to think theyre objective. They want to believe theyre logical. But theyre really being swayed by metaphors. To get a sense of how much the metaphor really mattered, the researchers also examined what role political persuasions play in peoples approach to reducing crime. They suspected that Republicans would be more inclined to catch and incarcerate criminals than Democrats, who would prefer enacting social reforms. They found Republicans were about 10 percent more likely to suggest an enforcement-based solution. To get a sense of how much the metaphor really mattered, the researchers also examined what role political persuasions play in peoples approach to reducing crime. They suspected that Republicans would be more inclined to catch and incarcerate criminals than Democrats, who would prefer enacting social reforms. They found Republicans were about 10 percent more likely to suggest an enforcement-based solution. Adaptado de news.stanford.edu. we didnt know the extent to which these metaphors influence people. In the fragment above, the doubt expressed by the researcher can be formulated by the following question:

Questão
2020Biologia

(UERJ - 2020) A produo e a transmisso do impulso nervoso nos neurnios tm origem no mecanismo da bomba de sdio-potssio. Esse mecanismo responsvel pelo transporte de onsNa+para o meio extracelular eK+para o interior da clula, gerando o sinal eltrico. A ilustrao abaixo representa esse processo. O axnio de algumas clulas nervosas envolvido pela bainha de mielina, uma membrana plasmtica rica em lipdeos. Observe: A composio da bainha de mielina permite que ela desempenhe a seguinte funo:

Questão
2020História

(UERJ - 2019) Entre 1967 e 1968, com destaque para o ano de 1968, ocorreram em vrios pases movimentos de contestao de grandes propores e com motivaes variadas, como retratado nas fotos. Um dos aspectos comuns entre esses movimentos foi:

Questão
2020Inglês

(UERJ - 2020) THE POWER OF METAPHORS Imagine your city isnt as safe as it used to be. Robberies are on the rise, home invasions are increasing and murder rates have nearly doubled in the past three years. What should city officials do about it? Hire more cops to round up the thugs and lock them away in a growing network of prisons? Or design programs that promise more peace by addressing issues like a faltering economy and underperforming schools? Your answer and the reasoning behind it can hinge on the metaphor being used to describe the problem, according to new research by Stanford psychologists. Your thinking can even be swayed with just one word, they say. Psychology Assistant Professor Lera Boroditsky and doctoral candidate Paul Thibodeau were curious about how subtle cues and common figures of speech can frame approaches to difficult problems. Some estimates suggest that one out of every 25 words we encounter is a metaphor, said Thibodeau, the studys lead author. But 1we didnt know the extent to which these metaphors influence people. In five experiments, 2test subjects were asked to read short paragraphs about rising crime rates in the fictional city of Addison and answer questions about the city. The researchers gauged how people answered these questions in light of how crime was described as a beast or a virus. They found the test subjects proposed solutions differed a great deal depending on the metaphor they were exposed to. The results have shown that people will likely support an increase in police forces and jailing of offenders if crime is described as a beast preying on a community. But if people are told crime is a virus infecting a city, they are more inclined to treat the problem with social reform. According to Boroditsky: People like to think theyre objective. They want to believe theyre logical. But theyre really being swayed by metaphors. To get a sense of how much the metaphor really mattered, the researchers also examined what role political persuasions play in peoples approach to reducing crime. They suspected that Republicans would be more inclined to catch and incarcerate criminals than Democrats, who would prefer enacting social reforms. They found Republicans were about 10 percent more likely to suggest an enforcement-based solution. We cant talk about any complex situation like crime without using metaphors, said Boroditsky. 3Metaphors arent just used for flowery speech. They shape the conversation for things were trying to explain and figure out. And they have consequences for determining what we decide is the right approach to solving problems. While their research focused on attitudes about crime, their findings can be used to understand the implications of how a casual or calculated turn of phrase can influence debates and change minds. Adaptado de news.stanford.edu. Metaphors arent just used for flowery speech. They shape the conversation for things were trying to explain and figure out.(ref. 3) In order to clarify the meaning relation between the two sentences above, the following word can be inserted in the underlined one:

Questão
2020Geografia

(Uerj 2020) UM MUNDO DE MUROS: AS BARREIRAS QUE NOS DIVIDEM Um mundo cada vez mais interconectado tem erguido muros e cercas para bloquear aqueles que considera indesejveis. Das 17 barreiras fsicas existentes em 2001 passamos para 70 hoje. Alguns separam fronteiras. Outros dividem a mesma populao. Alguns freiam refugiados. Outros escondem a pobreza. Ou o medo. Ou a guerra. Ou a desigualdade. Ou a mudana climtica. Adaptado de arte.folha.uol.com.br, 27/02/2017. Os objetivos prioritrios para a construo das barreiras fsicas apresentadas nos mapas 1 e 2 so, respectivamente:

Questão
2020Matemática

(UERJ - 2020)O grfico a seguir representa a funo peridica definida por f(x) = 2sen(x), x R. No intervalo [/2 , 5/2], A e B so pontos do grfico nos quais f (/2) = f (5/2) so valores mximos dessa funo. A rea do retngulo ABCD :

Questão
2020Matemática

(UERJ - 2020) Tem-se que o nmero a6a5a4a3a2a1 divisvel por 11, se o valor da expresso (a1- a2+ a3- a4 + a5-a6) tambm divisvel por 11. Por exemplo, 178409 divisvel por 11 porque: (9 - 0 + 4 - 8 + 7 - 1 = 11) divisvel por 11. Considera a senha de seis dgitos 3894xy, sendo x e y pertencentes ao conjunto {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9}. Se essa senha forma um nmero divisvel por 99, o algarismo y igual a:

Questão
2020Matemática

(UERJ - 2020)Uma gerente de loja e seu assistente viajam com frequncia para So Paulo e voltam no mesmo dia. A gerente viaja a cada 24 dias e o assistente, a cada 16 dias, regularmente. Em um final de semana, eles viajaram juntos. Depois de x viagens da gerente e y viagens do assistente sozinhos, eles viajaram juntos novamente. O menor valor de x + y :

Questão
2020Espanhol

(UERJ - 2020/ adaptada) EL PODER DE LAS METFORAS Qu es una metfora? Cul es su cometido y valor? Cmo podemos servirnos de ella para prosperar y ampliar nuestra perspectiva? Intentaremos resolver stas y otras cuestiones al respecto, y procuraremos vislumbrar cmo las metforas, si se utilizan de manera efectiva, pueden configurar nuestras vidas y dirigir nuestros destinos hacia un nuevo nivel de comprensin. [...] Si nos sentimos mal acerca de algo, debemos echarles un vistazo rpido a las metforas que utilizamos para describir como nos sentimos o para referirnos al obstculo que se interpone en nuestro camino. A menudo, utilizamos metforas que intensifican nuestras sensaciones negativas. Cuando las personas experimentan dificultades, dicen con frecuencia cosas como: Siento como si todo el peso del mundo descansara sobre mis hombros. O bien: Parece como si delante de m hubiera un muro que no puedo atravesar. Estas metforas incapacitadoras pueden cambiarse en un instante, con la misma rapidez con las que fueron creadas. Las metforas no slo nos afectan como individuos, sino que tambin afectan a nuestra comunidad y al mundo. Las metforas que adoptamos culturalmente pueden configurar nuestras percepciones y acciones de manera definitoria. Nuestra crisis nacional ha generado metforas que nos convencen de ciertos patrones y comportamientos sociales a los ciudadanos, y estos actan en consecuencia corroborndolos. Adaptado de andrescuevascoach.com. A menudo, utilizamos metforas que intensifican nuestras sensaciones negativas. El trmino subrayado indica una idea de:

Questão
2020Inglês

(UERJ - 2020) THE FLAT EARTH CRUISE: SERIOUSLY, PEOPLE? Organizers of an annual conference that brings together people who believe that our planet is not round are planning a cruise to the supposed edge of the Earth. Theyre looking for the ice wall that holds back the oceans. The journey will take place in 2020, the Flat Earth International Conference (FEIC) recently announced on its website. The goal? To test so-called flat-Earthers assertion that the Earth is a flattened disk surrounded at its edge by a towering wall of ice. Details about the event, including the dates, are forthcoming, according to the FEIC, which calls the cruise the biggest, boldest adventure yet. However, its worth noting that nautical maps and navigation technologies such as global positioning systems (GPS) work as they do because the Earth is a globe. Believers in a flat Earth argue that images showing a curved horizon are fake and that photos of a round Earth from space are part of a vast conspiracy perpetrated by NASA and other space agencies to hide Earths flatness. This likely began during the cold war, the Flat Earth Society (FES) says. The U.S.S.R. and U.S.A. were obsessed with beating each other into space to the point that each faked their accomplishments in an attempt to keep pace with the others supposed achievements. These and other flat-Earth assertions appear on the website of the FES, allegedly the worlds oldest official flat Earth organization, dating to the early 1800s. However, the ancient Greeks demonstrated that Earth was a sphere more than 2.000 years ago, and the gravity that keeps everything on the planet from flying off into space could exist only on a spherical world. But in diagrams shared on the FES website, the planet appears as a pancake-like disk with the North Pole smacked in the center and an edge surrounded on all sides by an ice wall that holds the oceans back. This ice wall thought by some flat-Earthers to be Antarctica is the destination of the promised FEIC cruise. Theres just one catch: navigational charts and systems that guide cruise ships and other vessels around the Earths oceans are all based on the principle of a round Earth, says Henk Keijer, a former cruise ship captain with 23 years of experience. GPS relies on a network of dozens of satellites orbiting thousands of miles above Earth; signals from the satellites beam down to the receiver inside of a GPS device, and at least three satellites are required to pinpoint a precise position because of Earths curvature, Keijer explained. Had the Earth been flat, a total of three satellites would have been enough to provide this information to everyone on Earth. He adds: But it is not enough, because the Earth is round. Whether or not, the FEIC cruise will rely on GPS or deploy an entirely new flat-Earth-based navigation system for finding the end of the world remains to be seen. Adaptado de livescience.com, 30/05/2017. Had the Earth been flat, a total of three satellites would have been enough to provide this information. In relation to the rest of the statement, the underlined fragment has the objective of:

Questão
2020Matemática

(UERJ - 2020) Admita que, em dezembro de 2014, uma filha tinha 20 anos e seu pai, 50. Em dezembro de 2024, a razo entre as idades da filha e do pai ser de:

Questão
2019História

(Uerj 2019) Tratado de Versalhes (1919) PARTE VII Sanções Artigo 227 As Potências aliadas ou associadas acusam publicamente a Guilherme II de Hohenzollern, ex-Imperador da Alemanha, por ofensa suprema contra a moral internacional e a autoridade sagrada dos Tratados. PARTE VIII Reparações Artigo 231 Os Governos aliados e associados declaram e a Alemanha reconhece que ela e seus aliados são responsáveis por haver causado todas as perdas e todos os prejuízos que sofreram os Governos aliados e associados e seus cidadãos, como consequência da guerra que foi imposta pela agressão da Alemanha e de seus aliados. (Adaptado de cervantesvirtual.com). O Tratado de Versalhes foi elaborado no contexto das negociações de paz após o fim da Primeira Guerra Mundial (1914-1918). A partir do texto, observa-se que no tratado foram instituídas cláusulas para o governo alemão com base no seguinte princípio:

Questão
2019Espanhol

(UERJ - 2019) Gracias a la vida Gracias a la vida que me ha dado tanto Me dio dos luceros, que cuando los abro, Perfecto distingo lo negro del blanco Y en el alto cielo su fondo estrellado Y en las multitudes el hombre que yo amo Gracias a la vida que me ha dado tanto Me ha dado el oido que en todo su ancho Graba noche y dia, grillos y canarios, Martillos, turbinas, ladridos, chubascos, Y la voz tan tierna de mi bien amado Gracias a la vida que me ha dado tanto Me ha dado el sonido y el abecedario; Con el las palabras que pienso y declaro: Madre, amigo, hermano, y luz alumbrando La ruta del alma del que estoy amando Gracias a la vida que me ha dado tanto Me ha dado la marcha de mis pies cansados; Con ellos anduve ciudades y charcos, Playas y desiertos, montanas y llanos, Y la casa tuya, tu calle y tu patio Gracias a la vida que me ha dado tanto Me dio el corazon que agita su marco Cuando miro el fruto del cerebro humano, Cuando miro al bueno tan lejos del malo, Cuando miro al fondo de tus ojos claros Gracias a la vida que me ha dado tanto Me ha dado la risa y me ha dado el llanto Asi yo distingo dicha de quebranto, Los dos materiales que forman mi canto, Y el canto de ustedes que es mi mismo canto, Y el canto de todos que es mi propio canto Gracias a la vida Gracias a la vida Me dio el corazn que agita su marco (l. 17) La forma verbal subrayada se refiere a una accin que se puede describir como:

Questão
2019Química

Considere as informaes a seguir sobre a perfluorodecalina, substncia utilizada no preparo de sangue artificial. Frmula mnima: C5F9. Massa molar: 462g/mol. C = 12;F = 19. Sua frmula molecular representada por:

Questão
2019História

(Uerj 2019)No início da noite de 26 de janeiro de 1893, por ordem do prefeito do Distrito Federal, Cândido Barata Ribeiro, a polícia ocupou o mais célebre dos cortiços cariocas, conhecido como Cabeça de Porco, no centro da cidade. A estalagem, conjunto de casinhas onde viviam de 400 a 2000 pessoas, foi em seguida desocupada, sem que se desse aos moradores o tempo necessário para recolherem suas coisas. Em poucas horas, foi demolida. Não tardou para que a expressão cabeça de porco se impusesse como sinônimo de cortiço. Adaptado de projetomemoria.art.br. A ordem de desocupação e demolição do famoso cortiço em 1893, ironizada em capa de revista da época, representou mudanças na ação do então prefeito com relação aos problemas sociais da cidade do Rio de Janeiro. Um desses problemas sociais e o objetivo dessa demolição estão indicados, respectivamente, em:

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