Gabarito AFA - Provas Anteriores

Questão 1
2022Inglês

(AFA - 2022 - Modelo A - Questo 1) TEXT When making a decision, it is a common impulse to look and see what others are doing. Nevertheless, it is often unclear whether the path that everyone else may be following is good for us as well. After all, sometimes 5 following the crowd had merit - at other times, itis simply peer pressure blinding us. The phenomenon of looking to other and following the crowd ______ by social science for a long time. Nevertheless, those findings do not always make 10their way to individual decision-makers. Therefore, lets review why people conform to the crowd - and under what conditions it is a good idea to go your own way instead. To start, individuals tend to look to the opinions of 15 others, especially when they are unsure and lack information from other sources. This dynamic was supported by classic research from Sherif (1937), who explored how a persons perception of a very ambiguous stimuli can be influenced by the opinion of others. Sherif 20(1937) asked participants to watch a small light in a dark and featureless room and evaluate how much that light moved at all - but the way our perception works in thar situation gives the possible ilusion of movement (called 25 the Autokinetic Effect). In this uncertain and ambiguous perceptual situation, Sherif (1937) found that individuals were quite susceptible to the influence of the opinions of others when trying to decide how much light was moving. 30 Unfortunately, this phenomenon also extends to individuals following the crowd, even when they can clearly see that others are wrong. This was first evaluated by Asch (1955), who asked participants to pick a line from a few choices of varying lengths that 35 matched up with another example line given to them. From a perceptual standpoint, the task was easy - as the correct choice of which lines were actually similar to one another was clear. Nevertheless, when participants were surrounded by other individuals giving the wrong 40 answer, they often conformed and made the wrong choice as well. Thus, even when the correct choice is clear, and what others are doing is wrong, that peer pressure can still cause us to doubt ourselves and follow the crowd. 45 Why is it that we are so compelled to follow the crowd, even when it is objectively clear that they are wrong? According to more recent research, we may simply be wired that way. Specifically, these social influences can actually change our perceptions and 50 memories (Edelson, Sharot, Dolan, Dudai, 2011). Therefore, rather than knowingly making the wrong choice just to conform to peer pressure, the influence of others may actually change what we see as the correct choice in the moment and remember as the right thing 55 after the fact. Beyond that, we might just have herding brains with built-in components that monitor our social alignments and make us feel good when we follow the crowd too (Shamay-Tsoory, Saporta, Marton-Alper, Gvirts, 2019). 60 Fortunately, this effect has good points as well. In many cases, group decision-making can help individuals look beyond their own private perspectives and make more rational decisions (Fahr Irlenbusch, 2011). Furthermore, pro-social and altruistic behaviors can be 65 influenced and shared through such conformity as well (Nook. Ong, Morelli, Mitchell, Zaki, 2016). Therefore, sometimes following the crowd helps people get along and make better decisions too. Given the above, when making a decision, it is 70 important to consider whether following others is a good idea - or is leading you astray instead. Some simple steps can help you figure it out. Getting swept away by that everyone else is doing is often an emotional and thoughtless process. We 75 are conforming simply because we have not given sufficient attention and effort toward considering any other options. Therefore, unless you are in an emergency situation and need to immediately follow everyone else toward the nearest exit, it might be a good 80 idea to switch to more deliberate thinking processes, rather than just going with your initial reaction. Some choices and decision-making situations are more individual, while others are more social. Therefore, it is important to consider the specific 85 situation. Is this an individual choice, or does it involve others? If you have sufficient information to make a clear choice on your own, and you do not need the 90 support of others to make something heppen, then taking the opinion of other into consideration might be a good idea instead. It is generally a good idea to evaluate your choices and decisions from multiple perspectives. The 95 same is true for following the opinion of others too. Although it might not feel that way at times, especially on the modern day of media coverage and social networking, everyone is not doing it - whatever it is that you are considering. Given that, before you follow 100 the advice or choices of any particular group of people, it might be a good idea to look at what other groups of people are doing or choosing too. In addition, we can learn a lot from people making choices contrary to ourselves or our preferred group, particularly about 105 potential down-sides to choices we might not be seeing. Therefore, if you do need to look to others to help provide information regarding a particular choice or decision, then it might help to seek out people with a few different opinions, weigh your options among them, and 110 figure out what will work best for you. (Adapted from https://www.psychologytoday.com. Acess on March 25th, 2021) Mark the option that makes an appropriate title for the text.

Questão 2
2022Inglês

(AFA - 2022 - Modelo A - Questo 2) TEXT When making a decision, it is a common impulse to look and see what others are doing. Nevertheless, it is often unclear whether the path that everyone else may be following is good for us as well. After all, sometimes 5 following the crowd had merit - at other times, itis simply peer pressure blinding us. The phenomenon of looking to other and following the crowd ______ by social science for a long time. Nevertheless, those findings do not always make 10their way to individual decision-makers. Therefore, lets review why people conform to the crowd - and under what conditions it is a good idea to go your own way instead. To start, individuals tend to look to the opinions of 15 others, especially when they are unsure and lack information from other sources. This dynamic was supported by classic research from Sherif (1937), who explored how a persons perception of a very ambiguous stimuli can be influenced by the opinion of others. Sherif 20(1937) asked participants to watch a small light in a dark and featureless room and evaluate how much that light moved at all - but the way our perception works in thar situation gives the possible ilusion of movement (called 25 the Autokinetic Effect). In this uncertain and ambiguous perceptual situation, Sherif (1937) found that individuals were quite susceptible to the influence of the opinions of others when trying to decide how much light was moving. 30 Unfortunately, this phenomenon also extends to individuals following the crowd, even when they can clearly see that others are wrong. This was first evaluated by Asch (1955), who asked participants to pick a line from a few choices of varying lengths that 35 matched up with another example line given to them. From a perceptual standpoint, the task was easy - as the correct choice of which lines were actually similar to one another was clear. Nevertheless, when participants were surrounded by other individuals giving the wrong 40 answer, they often conformed and made the wrong choice as well. Thus, even when the correct choice is clear, and what others are doing is wrong, that peer pressure can still cause us to doubt ourselves and follow the crowd. 45 Why is it that we are so compelled to follow the crowd, even when it is objectively clear that they are wrong? According to more recent research, we may simply be wired that way. Specifically, these social influences can actually change our perceptions and 50 memories (Edelson, Sharot, Dolan, Dudai, 2011). Therefore, rather than knowingly making the wrong choice just to conform to peer pressure, the influence of others may actually change what we see as the correct choice in the moment and remember as the right thing 55 after the fact. Beyond that, we might just have herding brains with built-in components that monitor our social alignments and make us feel good when we follow the crowd too (Shamay-Tsoory, Saporta, Marton-Alper, Gvirts, 2019). 60 Fortunately, this effect has good points as well. In many cases, group decision-making can help individuals look beyond their own private perspectives and make more rational decisions (Fahr Irlenbusch, 2011). Furthermore, pro-social and altruistic behaviors can be 65 influenced and shared through such conformity as well (Nook. Ong, Morelli, Mitchell, Zaki, 2016). Therefore, sometimes following the crowd helps people get along and make better decisions too. Given the above, when making a decision, it is 70 important to consider whether following others is a good idea - or is leading you astray instead. Some simple steps can help you figure it out. Getting swept away by that everyone else is doing is often an emotional and thoughtless process. We 75 are conforming simply because we have not given sufficient attention and effort toward considering any other options. Therefore, unless you are in an emergency situation and need to immediately follow everyone else toward the nearest exit, it might be a good 80 idea to switch to more deliberate thinking processes, rather than just going with your initial reaction. Some choices and decision-making situations are more individual, while others are more social. Therefore, it is important to consider the specific 85 situation. Is this an individual choice, or does it involve others? If you have sufficient information to make a clear choice on your own, and you do not need the 90 support of others to make something heppen, then taking the opinion of other into consideration might be a good idea instead. It is generally a good idea to evaluate your choices and decisions from multiple perspectives. The 95 same is true for following the opinion of others too. Although it might not feel that way at times, especially on the modern day of media coverage and social networking, everyone is not doing it - whatever it is that you are considering. Given that, before you follow 100 the advice or choices of any particular group of people, it might be a good idea to look at what other groups of people are doing or choosing too. In addition, we can learn a lot from people making choices contrary to ourselves or our preferred group, particularly about 105 potential down-sides to choices we might not be seeing. Therefore, if you do need to look to others to help provide information regarding a particular choice or decision, then it might help to seek out people with a few different opinions, weigh your options among them, and 110 figure out what will work best for you. (Adapted from https://www.psychologytoday.com. Acess on March 25th, 2021) In paragraph 2, the option that fits the gap appropriately in standard language is

Questão 3
2022Inglês

(AFA - 2022 - Modelo A - Questo 3) TEXT When making a decision, it is a common impulse to look and see what others are doing. Nevertheless, it is often unclear whether the path that everyone else may be following is good for us as well. After all, sometimes 5 following the crowd had merit - at other times, itis simply peer pressure blinding us. The phenomenon of looking to other and following the crowd ______ by social science for a long time. Nevertheless, those findings do not always make 10their way to individual decision-makers. Therefore, lets review why people conform to the crowd - and under what conditions it is a good idea to go your own way instead. To start, individuals tend to look to the opinions of 15 others, especially when they are unsure and lack information from other sources. This dynamic was supported by classic research from Sherif (1937), who explored how a persons perception of a very ambiguous stimuli can be influenced by the opinion of others. Sherif 20(1937) asked participants to watch a small light in a dark and featureless room and evaluate how much that light moved at all - but the way our perception works in thar situation gives the possible ilusion of movement (called 25 the Autokinetic Effect). In this uncertain and ambiguous perceptual situation, Sherif (1937) found that individuals were quite susceptible to the influence of the opinions of others when trying to decide how much light was moving. 30 Unfortunately, this phenomenon also extends to individuals following the crowd, even when they can clearly see that others are wrong. This was first evaluated by Asch (1955), who asked participants to pick a line from a few choices of varying lengths that 35 matched up with another example line given to them. From a perceptual standpoint, the task was easy - as the correct choice of which lines were actually similar to one another was clear. Nevertheless, when participants were surrounded by other individuals giving the wrong 40 answer, they often conformed and made the wrong choice as well. Thus, even when the correct choice is clear, and what others are doing is wrong, that peer pressure can still cause us to doubt ourselves and follow the crowd. 45 Why is it that we are so compelled to follow the crowd, even when it is objectively clear that they are wrong? According to more recent research, we may simply be wired that way. Specifically, these social influences can actually change our perceptions and 50 memories (Edelson, Sharot, Dolan, Dudai, 2011). Therefore, rather than knowingly making the wrong choice just to conform to peer pressure, the influence of others may actually change what we see as the correct choice in the moment and remember as the right thing 55 after the fact. Beyond that, we might just have herding brains with built-in components that monitor our social alignments and make us feel good when we follow the crowd too (Shamay-Tsoory, Saporta, Marton-Alper, Gvirts, 2019). 60 Fortunately, this effect has good points as well. In many cases, group decision-making can help individuals look beyond their own private perspectives and make more rational decisions (Fahr Irlenbusch, 2011). Furthermore, pro-social and altruistic behaviors can be 65 influenced and shared through such conformity as well (Nook. Ong, Morelli, Mitchell, Zaki, 2016). Therefore, sometimes following the crowd helps people get along and make better decisions too. Given the above, when making a decision, it is 70 important to consider whether following others is a good idea - or is leading you astray instead. Some simple steps can help you figure it out. Getting swept away by that everyone else is doing is often an emotional and thoughtless process. We 75 are conforming simply because we have not given sufficient attention and effort toward considering any other options. Therefore, unless you are in an emergency situation and need to immediately follow everyone else toward the nearest exit, it might be a good 80 idea to switch to more deliberate thinking processes, rather than just going with your initial reaction. Some choices and decision-making situations are more individual, while others are more social. Therefore, it is important to consider the specific 85 situation. Is this an individual choice, or does it involve others? If you have sufficient information to make a clear choice on your own, and you do not need the 90 support of others to make something heppen, then taking the opinion of other into consideration might be a good idea instead. It is generally a good idea to evaluate your choices and decisions from multiple perspectives. The 95 same is true for following the opinion of others too. Although it might not feel that way at times, especially on the modern day of media coverage and social networking, everyone is not doing it - whatever it is that you are considering. Given that, before you follow 100 the advice or choices of any particular group of people, it might be a good idea to look at what other groups of people are doing or choosing too. In addition, we can learn a lot from people making choices contrary to ourselves or our preferred group, particularly about 105 potential down-sides to choices we might not be seeing. Therefore, if you do need to look to others to help provide information regarding a particular choice or decision, then it might help to seek out people with a few different opinions, weigh your options among them, and 110 figure out what will work best for you. (Adapted from https://www.psychologytoday.com. Acess on March 25th, 2021) Earlier experiments showed that

Questão 4
2022Inglês

(AFA - 2022 - Modelo A - Questo 4) TEXT When making a decision, it is a common impulse to look and see what others are doing. Nevertheless, it is often unclear whether the path that everyone else may be following is good for us as well. After all, sometimes 5 following the crowd had merit - at other times, itis simply peer pressure blinding us. The phenomenon of looking to other and following the crowd ______ by social science for a long time. Nevertheless, those findings do not always make 10their way to individual decision-makers. Therefore, lets review why people conform to the crowd - and under what conditions it is a good idea to go your own way instead. To start, individuals tend to look to the opinions of 15 others, especially when they are unsure and lack information from other sources. This dynamic was supported by classic research from Sherif (1937), who explored how a persons perception of a very ambiguous stimuli can be influenced by the opinion of others. Sherif 20(1937) asked participants to watch a small light in a dark and featureless room and evaluate how much that light moved at all - but the way our perception works in thar situation gives the possible ilusion of movement (called 25 the Autokinetic Effect). In this uncertain and ambiguous perceptual situation, Sherif (1937) found that individuals were quite susceptible to the influence of the opinions of others when trying to decide how much light was moving. 30 Unfortunately, this phenomenon also extends to individuals following the crowd, even when they can clearly see that others are wrong. This was first evaluated by Asch (1955), who asked participants to pick a line from a few choices of varying lengths that 35 matched up with another example line given to them. From a perceptual standpoint, the task was easy - as the correct choice of which lines were actually similar to one another was clear. Nevertheless, when participants were surrounded by other individuals giving the wrong 40 answer, they often conformed and made the wrong choice as well. Thus, even when the correct choice is clear, and what others are doing is wrong, that peer pressure can still cause us to doubt ourselves and follow the crowd. 45 Why is it that we are so compelled to follow the crowd, even when it is objectively clear that they are wrong? According to more recent research, we may simply be wired that way. Specifically, these social influences can actually change our perceptions and 50 memories (Edelson, Sharot, Dolan, Dudai, 2011). Therefore, rather than knowingly making the wrong choice just to conform to peer pressure, the influence of others may actually change what we see as the correct choice in the moment and remember as the right thing 55 after the fact. Beyond that, we might just have herding brains with built-in components that monitor our social alignments and make us feel good when we follow the crowd too (Shamay-Tsoory, Saporta, Marton-Alper, Gvirts, 2019). 60 Fortunately, this effect has good points as well. In many cases, group decision-making can help individuals look beyond their own private perspectives and make more rational decisions (Fahr Irlenbusch, 2011). Furthermore, pro-social and altruistic behaviors can be 65 influenced and shared through such conformity as well (Nook. Ong, Morelli, Mitchell, Zaki, 2016). Therefore, sometimes following the crowd helps people get along and make better decisions too. Given the above, when making a decision, it is 70 important to consider whether following others is a good idea - or is leading you astray instead. Some simple steps can help you figure it out. Getting swept away by that everyone else is doing is often an emotional and thoughtless process. We 75 are conforming simply because we have not given sufficient attention and effort toward considering any other options. Therefore, unless you are in an emergency situation and need to immediately follow everyone else toward the nearest exit, it might be a good 80 idea to switch to more deliberate thinking processes, rather than just going with your initial reaction. Some choices and decision-making situations are more individual, while others are more social. Therefore, it is important to consider the specific 85 situation. Is this an individual choice, or does it involve others? If you have sufficient information to make a clear choice on your own, and you do not need the 90 support of others to make something heppen, then taking the opinion of other into consideration might be a good idea instead. It is generally a good idea to evaluate your choices and decisions from multiple perspectives. The 95 same is true for following the opinion of others too. Although it might not feel that way at times, especially on the modern day of media coverage and social networking, everyone is not doing it - whatever it is that you are considering. Given that, before you follow 100 the advice or choices of any particular group of people, it might be a good idea to look at what other groups of people are doing or choosing too. In addition, we can learn a lot from people making choices contrary to ourselves or our preferred group, particularly about 105 potential down-sides to choices we might not be seeing. Therefore, if you do need to look to others to help provide information regarding a particular choice or decision, then it might help to seek out people with a few different opinions, weigh your options among them, and 110 figure out what will work best for you. (Adapted from https://www.psychologytoday.com. Acess on March 25th, 2021) According to more recent research,

Questão 5
2022Inglês

(AFA - 2022 - Modelo A - Questo 5) TEXT When making a decision, it is a common impulse to look and see what others are doing. Nevertheless, it is often unclear whether the path that everyone else may be following is good for us as well. After all, sometimes 5 following the crowd had merit - at other times, itis simply peer pressure blinding us. The phenomenon of looking to other and following the crowd ______ by social science for a long time. Nevertheless, those findings do not always make 10their way to individual decision-makers. Therefore, lets review why people conform to the crowd - and under what conditions it is a good idea to go your own way instead. To start, individuals tend to look to the opinions of 15 others, especially when they are unsure and lack information from other sources. This dynamic was supported by classic research from Sherif (1937), who explored how a persons perception of a very ambiguous stimuli can be influenced by the opinion of others. Sherif 20(1937) asked participants to watch a small light in a dark and featureless room and evaluate how much that light moved at all - but the way our perception works in thar situation gives the possible ilusion of movement (called 25 the Autokinetic Effect). In this uncertain and ambiguous perceptual situation, Sherif (1937) found that individuals were quite susceptible to the influence of the opinions of others when trying to decide how much light was moving. 30 Unfortunately, this phenomenon also extends to individuals following the crowd, even when they can clearly see that others are wrong. This was first evaluated by Asch (1955), who asked participants to pick a line from a few choices of varying lengths that 35 matched up with another example line given to them. From a perceptual standpoint, the task was easy - as the correct choice of which lines were actually similar to one another was clear. Nevertheless, when participants were surrounded by other individuals giving the wrong 40 answer, they often conformed and made the wrong choice as well. Thus, even when the correct choice is clear, and what others are doing is wrong, that peer pressure can still cause us to doubt ourselves and follow the crowd. 45 Why is it that we are so compelled to follow the crowd, even when it is objectively clear that they are wrong? According to more recent research, we may simply be wired that way. Specifically, these social influences can actually change our perceptions and 50 memories (Edelson, Sharot, Dolan, Dudai, 2011). Therefore, rather than knowingly making the wrong choice just to conform to peer pressure, the influence of others may actually change what we see as the correct choice in the moment and remember as the right thing 55 after the fact. Beyond that, we might just have herding brains with built-in components that monitor our social alignments and make us feel good when we follow the crowd too (Shamay-Tsoory, Saporta, Marton-Alper, Gvirts, 2019). 60 Fortunately, this effect has good points as well. In many cases, group decision-making can help individuals look beyond their own private perspectives and make more rational decisions (Fahr Irlenbusch, 2011). Furthermore, pro-social and altruistic behaviors can be 65 influenced and shared through such conformity as well (Nook. Ong, Morelli, Mitchell, Zaki, 2016). Therefore, sometimes following the crowd helps people get along and make better decisions too. Given the above, when making a decision, it is 70 important to consider whether following others is a good idea - or is leading you astray instead. Some simple steps can help you figure it out. Getting swept away by that everyone else is doing is often an emotional and thoughtless process. We 75 are conforming simply because we have not given sufficient attention and effort toward considering any other options. Therefore, unless you are in an emergency situation and need to immediately follow everyone else toward the nearest exit, it might be a good 80 idea to switch to more deliberate thinking processes, rather than just going with your initial reaction. Some choices and decision-making situations are more individual, while others are more social. Therefore, it is important to consider the specific 85 situation. Is this an individual choice, or does it involve others? If you have sufficient information to make a clear choice on your own, and you do not need the 90 support of others to make something heppen, then taking the opinion of other into consideration might be a good idea instead. It is generally a good idea to evaluate your choices and decisions from multiple perspectives. The 95 same is true for following the opinion of others too. Although it might not feel that way at times, especially on the modern day of media coverage and social networking, everyone is not doing it - whatever it is that you are considering. Given that, before you follow 100 the advice or choices of any particular group of people, it might be a good idea to look at what other groups of people are doing or choosing too. In addition, we can learn a lot from people making choices contrary to ourselves or our preferred group, particularly about 105 potential down-sides to choices we might not be seeing. Therefore, if you do need to look to others to help provide information regarding a particular choice or decision, then it might help to seek out people with a few different opinions, weigh your options among them, and 110 figure out what will work best for you. (Adapted from https://www.psychologytoday.com. Acess on March 25th, 2021) In the tex, the word even (line 31)

Questão 6
2022Inglês

(AFA - 2022 - Modelo A - Questo 6) TEXT When making a decision, it is a common impulse to look and see what others are doing. Nevertheless, it is often unclear whether the path that everyone else may be following is good for us as well. After all, sometimes 5 following the crowd had merit - at other times, itis simply peer pressure blinding us. The phenomenon of looking to other and following the crowd ______ by social science for a long time. Nevertheless, those findings do not always make 10their way to individual decision-makers. Therefore, lets review why people conform to the crowd - and under what conditions it is a good idea to go your own way instead. To start, individuals tend to look to the opinions of 15 others, especially when they are unsure and lack information from other sources. This dynamic was supported by classic research from Sherif (1937), who explored how a persons perception of a very ambiguous stimuli can be influenced by the opinion of others. Sherif 20(1937) asked participants to watch a small light in a dark and featureless room and evaluate how much that light moved at all - but the way our perception works in thar situation gives the possible ilusion of movement (called 25 the Autokinetic Effect). In this uncertain and ambiguous perceptual situation, Sherif (1937) found that individuals were quite susceptible to the influence of the opinions of others when trying to decide how much light was moving. 30 Unfortunately, this phenomenon also extends to individuals following the crowd, even when they can clearly see that others are wrong. This was first evaluated by Asch (1955), who asked participants to pick a line from a few choices of varying lengths that 35 matched up with another example line given to them. From a perceptual standpoint, the task was easy - as the correct choice of which lines were actually similar to one another was clear. Nevertheless, when participants were surrounded by other individuals giving the wrong 40 answer, they often conformed and made the wrong choice as well. Thus, even when the correct choice is clear, and what others are doing is wrong, that peer pressure can still cause us to doubt ourselves and follow the crowd. 45 Why is it that we are so compelled to follow the crowd, even when it is objectively clear that they are wrong? According to more recent research, we may simply be wired that way. Specifically, these social influences can actually change our perceptions and 50 memories (Edelson, Sharot, Dolan, Dudai, 2011). Therefore, rather than knowingly making the wrong choice just to conform to peer pressure, the influence of others may actually change what we see as the correct choice in the moment and remember as the right thing 55 after the fact. Beyond that, we might just have herding brains with built-in components that monitor our social alignments and make us feel good when we follow the crowd too (Shamay-Tsoory, Saporta, Marton-Alper, Gvirts, 2019). 60 Fortunately, this effect has good points as well. In many cases, group decision-making can help individuals look beyond their own private perspectives and make more rational decisions (Fahr Irlenbusch, 2011). Furthermore, pro-social and altruistic behaviors can be 65 influenced and shared through such conformity as well (Nook. Ong, Morelli, Mitchell, Zaki, 2016). Therefore, sometimes following the crowd helps people get along and make better decisions too. Given the above, when making a decision, it is 70 important to consider whether following others is a good idea - or is leading you astray instead. Some simple steps can help you figure it out. Getting swept away by that everyone else is doing is often an emotional and thoughtless process. We 75 are conforming simply because we have not given sufficient attention and effort toward considering any other options. Therefore, unless you are in an emergency situation and need to immediately follow everyone else toward the nearest exit, it might be a good 80 idea to switch to more deliberate thinking processes, rather than just going with your initial reaction. Some choices and decision-making situations are more individual, while others are more social. Therefore, it is important to consider the specific 85 situation. Is this an individual choice, or does it involve others? If you have sufficient information to make a clear choice on your own, and you do not need the 90 support of others to make something heppen, then taking the opinion of other into consideration might be a good idea instead. It is generally a good idea to evaluate your choices and decisions from multiple perspectives. The 95 same is true for following the opinion of others too. Although it might not feel that way at times, especially on the modern day of media coverage and social networking, everyone is not doing it - whatever it is that you are considering. Given that, before you follow 100 the advice or choices of any particular group of people, it might be a good idea to look at what other groups of people are doing or choosing too. In addition, we can learn a lot from people making choices contrary to ourselves or our preferred group, particularly about 105 potential down-sides to choices we might not be seeing. Therefore, if you do need to look to others to help provide information regarding a particular choice or decision, then it might help to seek out people with a few different opinions, weigh your options among them, and 110 figure out what will work best for you. (Adapted from https://www.psychologytoday.com. Acess on March 25th, 2021) Read the statements below. I. We ought to consider things more slowly and intentionally to make better decisions. II. When under pressure it might be valid to follow the crowd. III. Being driven by what other people are doing is a rational process. Mark the alternative that is correct according to the text.

Questão 7
2022Inglês

(AFA - 2022 - Modelo A - Questo 7) TEXT When making a decision, it is a common impulse to look and see what others are doing. Nevertheless, it is often unclear whether the path that everyone else may be following is good for us as well. After all, sometimes 5 following the crowd had merit - at other times, itis simply peer pressure blinding us. The phenomenon of looking to other and following the crowd ______ by social science for a long time. Nevertheless, those findings do not always make 10their way to individual decision-makers. Therefore, lets review why people conform to the crowd - and under what conditions it is a good idea to go your own way instead. To start, individuals tend to look to the opinions of 15 others, especially when they are unsure and lack information from other sources. This dynamic was supported by classic research from Sherif (1937), who explored how a persons perception of a very ambiguous stimuli can be influenced by the opinion of others. Sherif 20(1937) asked participants to watch a small light in a dark and featureless room and evaluate how much that light moved at all - but the way our perception works in thar situation gives the possible ilusion of movement (called 25 the Autokinetic Effect). In this uncertain and ambiguous perceptual situation, Sherif (1937) found that individuals were quite susceptible to the influence of the opinions of others when trying to decide how much light was moving. 30 Unfortunately, this phenomenon also extends to individuals following the crowd, even when they can clearly see that others are wrong. This was first evaluated by Asch (1955), who asked participants to pick a line from a few choices of varying lengths that 35 matched up with another example line given to them. From a perceptual standpoint, the task was easy - as the correct choice of which lines were actually similar to one another was clear. Nevertheless, when participants were surrounded by other individuals giving the wrong 40 answer, they often conformed and made the wrong choice as well. Thus, even when the correct choice is clear, and what others are doing is wrong, that peer pressure can still cause us to doubt ourselves and follow the crowd. 45 Why is it that we are so compelled to follow the crowd, even when it is objectively clear that they are wrong? According to more recent research, we may simply be wired that way. Specifically, these social influences can actually change our perceptions and 50 memories (Edelson, Sharot, Dolan, Dudai, 2011). Therefore, rather than knowingly making the wrong choice just to conform to peer pressure, the influence of others may actually change what we see as the correct choice in the moment and remember as the right thing 55 after the fact. Beyond that, we might just have herding brains with built-in components that monitor our social alignments and make us feel good when we follow the crowd too (Shamay-Tsoory, Saporta, Marton-Alper, Gvirts, 2019). 60 Fortunately, this effect has good points as well. In many cases, group decision-making can help individuals look beyond their own private perspectives and make more rational decisions (Fahr Irlenbusch, 2011). Furthermore, pro-social and altruistic behaviors can be 65 influenced and shared through such conformity as well (Nook. Ong, Morelli, Mitchell, Zaki, 2016). Therefore, sometimes following the crowd helps people get along and make better decisions too. Given the above, when making a decision, it is 70 important to consider whether following others is a good idea - or is leading you astray instead. Some simple steps can help you figure it out. Getting swept away by that everyone else is doing is often an emotional and thoughtless process. We 75 are conforming simply because we have not given sufficient attention and effort toward considering any other options. Therefore, unless you are in an emergency situation and need to immediately follow everyone else toward the nearest exit, it might be a good 80 idea to switch to more deliberate thinking processes, rather than just going with your initial reaction. Some choices and decision-making situations are more individual, while others are more social. Therefore, it is important to consider the specific 85 situation. Is this an individual choice, or does it involve others? If you have sufficient information to make a clear choice on your own, and you do not need the 90 support of others to make something heppen, then taking the opinion of other into consideration might be a good idea instead. It is generally a good idea to evaluate your choices and decisions from multiple perspectives. The 95 same is true for following the opinion of others too. Although it might not feel that way at times, especially on the modern day of media coverage and social networking, everyone is not doing it - whatever it is that you are considering. Given that, before you follow 100 the advice or choices of any particular group of people, it might be a good idea to look at what other groups of people are doing or choosing too. In addition, we can learn a lot from people making choices contrary to ourselves or our preferred group, particularly about 105 potential down-sides to choices we might not be seeing. Therefore, if you do need to look to others to help provide information regarding a particular choice or decision, then it might help to seek out people with a few different opinions, weigh your options among them, and 110 figure out what will work best for you. (Adapted from https://www.psychologytoday.com. Acess on March 25th, 2021) A recurring idea in the text is that

Questão 8
2022Inglês

(AFA - 2022 - Modelo A - Questo 8) TEXT When making a decision, it is a common impulse to look and see what others are doing. Nevertheless, it is often unclear whether the path that everyone else may be following is good for us as well. After all, sometimes 5 following the crowd had merit - at other times, itis simply peer pressure blinding us. The phenomenon of looking to other and following the crowd ______ by social science for a long time. Nevertheless, those findings do not always make 10their way to individual decision-makers. Therefore, lets review why people conform to the crowd - and under what conditions it is a good idea to go your own way instead. To start, individuals tend to look to the opinions of 15 others, especially when they are unsure and lack information from other sources. This dynamic was supported by classic research from Sherif (1937), who explored how a persons perception of a very ambiguous stimuli can be influenced by the opinion of others. Sherif 20(1937) asked participants to watch a small light in a dark and featureless room and evaluate how much that light moved at all - but the way our perception works in thar situation gives the possible ilusion of movement (called 25 the Autokinetic Effect). In this uncertain and ambiguous perceptual situation, Sherif (1937) found that individuals were quite susceptible to the influence of the opinions of others when trying to decide how much light was moving. 30 Unfortunately, this phenomenon also extends to individuals following the crowd, even when they can clearly see that others are wrong. This was first evaluated by Asch (1955), who asked participants to pick a line from a few choices of varying lengths that 35 matched up with another example line given to them. From a perceptual standpoint, the task was easy - as the correct choice of which lines were actually similar to one another was clear. Nevertheless, when participants were surrounded by other individuals giving the wrong 40 answer, they often conformed and made the wrong choice as well. Thus, even when the correct choice is clear, and what others are doing is wrong, that peer pressure can still cause us to doubt ourselves and follow the crowd. 45 Why is it that we are so compelled to follow the crowd, even when it is objectively clear that they are wrong? According to more recent research, we may simply be wired that way. Specifically, these social influences can actually change our perceptions and 50 memories (Edelson, Sharot, Dolan, Dudai, 2011). Therefore, rather than knowingly making the wrong choice just to conform to peer pressure, the influence of others may actually change what we see as the correct choice in the moment and remember as the right thing 55 after the fact. Beyond that, we might just have herding brains with built-in components that monitor our social alignments and make us feel good when we follow the crowd too (Shamay-Tsoory, Saporta, Marton-Alper, Gvirts, 2019). 60 Fortunately, this effect has good points as well. In many cases, group decision-making can help individuals look beyond their own private perspectives and make more rational decisions (Fahr Irlenbusch, 2011). Furthermore, pro-social and altruistic behaviors can be 65 influenced and shared through such conformity as well (Nook. Ong, Morelli, Mitchell, Zaki, 2016). Therefore, sometimes following the crowd helps people get along and make better decisions too. Given the above, when making a decision, it is 70 important to consider whether following others is a good idea - or is leading you astray instead. Some simple steps can help you figure it out. Getting swept away by that everyone else is doing is often an emotional and thoughtless process. We 75 are conforming simply because we have not given sufficient attention and effort toward considering any other options. Therefore, unless you are in an emergency situation and need to immediately follow everyone else toward the nearest exit, it might be a good 80 idea to switch to more deliberate thinking processes, rather than just going with your initial reaction. Some choices and decision-making situations are more individual, while others are more social. Therefore, it is important to consider the specific 85 situation. Is this an individual choice, or does it involve others? If you have sufficient information to make a clear choice on your own, and you do not need the 90 support of others to make something heppen, then taking the opinion of other into consideration might be a good idea instead. It is generally a good idea to evaluate your choices and decisions from multiple perspectives. The 95 same is true for following the opinion of others too. Although it might not feel that way at times, especially on the modern day of media coverage and social networking, everyone is not doing it - whatever it is that you are considering. Given that, before you follow 100 the advice or choices of any particular group of people, it might be a good idea to look at what other groups of people are doing or choosing too. In addition, we can learn a lot from people making choices contrary to ourselves or our preferred group, particularly about 105 potential down-sides to choices we might not be seeing. Therefore, if you do need to look to others to help provide information regarding a particular choice or decision, then it might help to seek out people with a few different opinions, weigh your options among them, and 110 figure out what will work best for you. (Adapted from https://www.psychologytoday.com. Acess on March 25th, 2021) The statement that is more closely related to the idea found in paragraph 9 is:

Questão 9
2022Inglês

(AFA - 2022 - Modelo A - Questo 9) TEXT When making a decision, it is a common impulse to look and see what others are doing. Nevertheless, it is often unclear whether the path that everyone else may be following is good for us as well. After all, sometimes 5 following the crowd had merit - at other times, itis simply peer pressure blinding us. The phenomenon of looking to other and following the crowd ______ by social science for a long time. Nevertheless, those findings do not always make 10their way to individual decision-makers. Therefore, lets review why people conform to the crowd - and under what conditions it is a good idea to go your own way instead. To start, individuals tend to look to the opinions of 15 others, especially when they are unsure and lack information from other sources. This dynamic was supported by classic research from Sherif (1937), who explored how a persons perception of a very ambiguous stimuli can be influenced by the opinion of others. Sherif 20(1937) asked participants to watch a small light in a dark and featureless room and evaluate how much that light moved at all - but the way our perception works in thar situation gives the possible ilusion of movement (called 25 the Autokinetic Effect). In this uncertain and ambiguous perceptual situation, Sherif (1937) found that individuals were quite susceptible to the influence of the opinions of others when trying to decide how much light was moving. 30 Unfortunately, this phenomenon also extends to individuals following the crowd, even when they can clearly see that others are wrong. This was first evaluated by Asch (1955), who asked participants to pick a line from a few choices of varying lengths that 35 matched up with another example line given to them. From a perceptual standpoint, the task was easy - as the correct choice of which lines were actually similar to one another was clear. Nevertheless, when participants were surrounded by other individuals giving the wrong 40 answer, they often conformed and made the wrong choice as well. Thus, even when the correct choice is clear, and what others are doing is wrong, that peer pressure can still cause us to doubt ourselves and follow the crowd. 45 Why is it that we are so compelled to follow the crowd, even when it is objectively clear that they are wrong? According to more recent research, we may simply be wired that way. Specifically, these social influences can actually change our perceptions and 50 memories (Edelson, Sharot, Dolan, Dudai, 2011). Therefore, rather than knowingly making the wrong choice just to conform to peer pressure, the influence of others may actually change what we see as the correct choice in the moment and remember as the right thing 55 after the fact. Beyond that, we might just have herding brains with built-in components that monitor our social alignments and make us feel good when we follow the crowd too (Shamay-Tsoory, Saporta, Marton-Alper, Gvirts, 2019). 60 Fortunately, this effect has good points as well. In many cases, group decision-making can help individuals look beyond their own private perspectives and make more rational decisions (Fahr Irlenbusch, 2011). Furthermore, pro-social and altruistic behaviors can be 65 influenced and shared through such conformity as well (Nook. Ong, Morelli, Mitchell, Zaki, 2016). Therefore, sometimes following the crowd helps people get along and make better decisions too. Given the above, when making a decision, it is 70 important to consider whether following others is a good idea - or is leading you astray instead. Some simple steps can help you figure it out. Getting swept away by that everyone else is doing is often an emotional and thoughtless process. We 75 are conforming simply because we have not given sufficient attention and effort toward considering any other options. Therefore, unless you are in an emergency situation and need to immediately follow everyone else toward the nearest exit, it might be a good 80 idea to switch to more deliberate thinking processes, rather than just going with your initial reaction. Some choices and decision-making situations are more individual, while others are more social. Therefore, it is important to consider the specific 85 situation. Is this an individual choice, or does it involve others? If you have sufficient information to make a clear choice on your own, and you do not need the 90 support of others to make something heppen, then taking the opinion of other into consideration might be a good idea instead. It is generally a good idea to evaluate your choices and decisions from multiple perspectives. The 95 same is true for following the opinion of others too. Although it might not feel that way at times, especially on the modern day of media coverage and social networking, everyone is not doing it - whatever it is that you are considering. Given that, before you follow 100 the advice or choices of any particular group of people, it might be a good idea to look at what other groups of people are doing or choosing too. In addition, we can learn a lot from people making choices contrary to ourselves or our preferred group, particularly about 105 potential down-sides to choices we might not be seeing. Therefore, if you do need to look to others to help provide information regarding a particular choice or decision, then it might help to seek out people with a few different opinions, weigh your options among them, and 110 figure out what will work best for you. (Adapted from https://www.psychologytoday.com. Acess on March 25th, 2021) Therefore (line 51) is closest in meaning to

Questão 10
2022Inglês

(AFA - 2022 - Modelo A - Questo 10) TEXT When making a decision, it is a common impulse to look and see what others are doing. Nevertheless, it is often unclear whether the path that everyone else may be following is good for us as well. After all, sometimes 5 following the crowd had merit - at other times, itis simply peer pressure blinding us. The phenomenon of looking to other and following the crowd ______ by social science for a long time. Nevertheless, those findings do not always make 10their way to individual decision-makers. Therefore, lets review why people conform to the crowd - and under what conditions it is a good idea to go your own way instead. To start, individuals tend to look to the opinions of 15 others, especially when they are unsure and lack information from other sources. This dynamic was supported by classic research from Sherif (1937), who explored how a persons perception of a very ambiguous stimuli can be influenced by the opinion of others. Sherif 20(1937) asked participants to watch a small light in a dark and featureless room and evaluate how much that light moved at all - but the way our perception works in thar situation gives the possible ilusion of movement (called 25 the Autokinetic Effect). In this uncertain and ambiguous perceptual situation, Sherif (1937) found that individuals were quite susceptible to the influence of the opinions of others when trying to decide how much light was moving. 30 Unfortunately, this phenomenon also extends to individuals following the crowd, even when they can clearly see that others are wrong. This was first evaluated by Asch (1955), who asked participants to pick a line from a few choices of varying lengths that 35 matched up with another example line given to them. From a perceptual standpoint, the task was easy - as the correct choice of which lines were actually similar to one another was clear. Nevertheless, when participants were surrounded by other individuals giving the wrong 40 answer, they often conformed and made the wrong choice as well. Thus, even when the correct choice is clear, and what others are doing is wrong, that peer pressure can still cause us to doubt ourselves and follow the crowd. 45 Why is it that we are so compelled to follow the crowd, even when it is objectively clear that they are wrong? According to more recent research, we may simply be wired that way. Specifically, these social influences can actually change our perceptions and 50 memories (Edelson, Sharot, Dolan, Dudai, 2011). Therefore, rather than knowingly making the wrong choice just to conform to peer pressure, the influence of others may actually change what we see as the correct choice in the moment and remember as the right thing 55 after the fact. Beyond that, we might just have herding brains with built-in components that monitor our social alignments and make us feel good when we follow the crowd too (Shamay-Tsoory, Saporta, Marton-Alper, Gvirts, 2019). 60 Fortunately, this effect has good points as well. In many cases, group decision-making can help individuals look beyond their own private perspectives and make more rational decisions (Fahr Irlenbusch, 2011). Furthermore, pro-social and altruistic behaviors can be 65 influenced and shared through such conformity as well (Nook. Ong, Morelli, Mitchell, Zaki, 2016). Therefore, sometimes following the crowd helps people get along and make better decisions too. Given the above, when making a decision, it is 70 important to consider whether following others is a good idea - or is leading you astray instead. Some simple steps can help you figure it out. Getting swept away by that everyone else is doing is often an emotional and thoughtless process. We 75 are conforming simply because we have not given sufficient attention and effort toward considering any other options. Therefore, unless you are in an emergency situation and need to immediately follow everyone else toward the nearest exit, it might be a good 80 idea to switch to more deliberate thinking processes, rather than just going with your initial reaction. Some choices and decision-making situations are more individual, while others are more social. Therefore, it is important to consider the specific 85 situation. Is this an individual choice, or does it involve others? If you have sufficient information to make a clear choice on your own, and you do not need the 90 support of others to make something heppen, then taking the opinion of other into consideration might be a good idea instead. It is generally a good idea to evaluate your choices and decisions from multiple perspectives. The 95 same is true for following the opinion of others too. Although it might not feel that way at times, especially on the modern day of media coverage and social networking, everyone is not doing it - whatever it is that you are considering. Given that, before you follow 100 the advice or choices of any particular group of people, it might be a good idea to look at what other groups of people are doing or choosing too. In addition, we can learn a lot from people making choices contrary to ourselves or our preferred group, particularly about 105 potential down-sides to choices we might not be seeing. Therefore, if you do need to look to others to help provide information regarding a particular choice or decision, then it might help to seek out people with a few different opinions, weigh your options among them, and 110 figure out what will work best for you. (Adapted from https://www.psychologytoday.com. Acess on March 25th, 2021) The following factors can influence people into following the crowd, EXCEPT,

Questão 11
2022Inglês

(AFA - 2022 - Modelo A - Questo 11) TEXT When making a decision, it is a common impulse to look and see what others are doing. Nevertheless, it is often unclear whether the path that everyone else may be following is good for us as well. After all, sometimes 5 following the crowd had merit - at other times, itis simply peer pressure blinding us. The phenomenon of looking to other and following the crowd ______ by social science for a long time. Nevertheless, those findings do not always make 10their way to individual decision-makers. Therefore, lets review why people conform to the crowd - and under what conditions it is a good idea to go your own way instead. To start, individuals tend to look to the opinions of 15 others, especially when they are unsure and lack information from other sources. This dynamic was supported by classic research from Sherif (1937), who explored how a persons perception of a very ambiguous stimuli can be influenced by the opinion of others. Sherif 20(1937) asked participants to watch a small light in a dark and featureless room and evaluate how much that light moved at all - but the way our perception works in thar situation gives the possible ilusion of movement (called 25 the Autokinetic Effect). In this uncertain and ambiguous perceptual situation, Sherif (1937) found that individuals were quite susceptible to the influence of the opinions of others when trying to decide how much light was moving. 30 Unfortunately, this phenomenon also extends to individuals following the crowd, even when they can clearly see that others are wrong. This was first evaluated by Asch (1955), who asked participants to pick a line from a few choices of varying lengths that 35 matched up with another example line given to them. From a perceptual standpoint, the task was easy - as the correct choice of which lines were actually similar to one another was clear. Nevertheless, when participants were surrounded by other individuals giving the wrong 40 answer, they often conformed and made the wrong choice as well. Thus, even when the correct choice is clear, and what others are doing is wrong, that peer pressure can still cause us to doubt ourselves and follow the crowd. 45 Why is it that we are so compelled to follow the crowd, even when it is objectively clear that they are wrong? According to more recent research, we may simply be wired that way. Specifically, these social influences can actually change our perceptions and 50 memories (Edelson, Sharot, Dolan, Dudai, 2011). Therefore, rather than knowingly making the wrong choice just to conform to peer pressure, the influence of others may actually change what we see as the correct choice in the moment and remember as the right thing 55 after the fact. Beyond that, we might just have herding brains with built-in components that monitor our social alignments and make us feel good when we follow the crowd too (Shamay-Tsoory, Saporta, Marton-Alper, Gvirts, 2019). 60 Fortunately, this effect has good points as well. In many cases, group decision-making can help individuals look beyond their own private perspectives and make more rational decisions (Fahr Irlenbusch, 2011). Furthermore, pro-social and altruistic behaviors can be 65 influenced and shared through such conformity as well (Nook. Ong, Morelli, Mitchell, Zaki, 2016). Therefore, sometimes following the crowd helps people get along and make better decisions too. Given the above, when making a decision, it is 70 important to consider whether following others is a good idea - or is leading you astray instead. Some simple steps can help you figure it out. Getting swept away by that everyone else is doing is often an emotional and thoughtless process. We 75 are conforming simply because we have not given sufficient attention and effort toward considering any other options. Therefore, unless you are in an emergency situation and need to immediately follow everyone else toward the nearest exit, it might be a good 80 idea to switch to more deliberate thinking processes, rather than just going with your initial reaction. Some choices and decision-making situations are more individual, while others are more social. Therefore, it is important to consider the specific 85 situation. Is this an individual choice, or does it involve others? If you have sufficient information to make a clear choice on your own, and you do not need the 90 support of others to make something heppen, then taking the opinion of other into consideration might be a good idea instead. It is generally a good idea to evaluate your choices and decisions from multiple perspectives. The 95 same is true for following the opinion of others too. Although it might not feel that way at times, especially on the modern day of media coverage and social networking, everyone is not doing it - whatever it is that you are considering. Given that, before you follow 100 the advice or choices of any particular group of people, it might be a good idea to look at what other groups of people are doing or choosing too. In addition, we can learn a lot from people making choices contrary to ourselves or our preferred group, particularly about 105 potential down-sides to choices we might not be seeing. Therefore, if you do need to look to others to help provide information regarding a particular choice or decision, then it might help to seek out people with a few different opinions, weigh your options among them, and 110 figure out what will work best for you. (Adapted from https://www.psychologytoday.com. Acess on March 25th, 2021) Mark the option in which the passage expresses a condition.

Questão 12
2022Inglês

(AFA - 2022 - Modelo A - Questo 12) TEXT When making a decision, it is a common impulse to look and see what others are doing. Nevertheless, it is often unclear whether the path that everyone else may be following is good for us as well. After all, sometimes 5 following the crowd had merit - at other times, itis simply peer pressure blinding us. The phenomenon of looking to other and following the crowd ______ by social science for a long time. Nevertheless, those findings do not always make 10their way to individual decision-makers. Therefore, lets review why people conform to the crowd - and under what conditions it is a good idea to go your own way instead. To start, individuals tend to look to the opinions of 15 others, especially when they are unsure and lack information from other sources. This dynamic was supported by classic research from Sherif (1937), who explored how a persons perception of a very ambiguous stimuli can be influenced by the opinion of others. Sherif 20(1937) asked participants to watch a small light in a dark and featureless room and evaluate how much that light moved at all - but the way our perception works in thar situation gives the possible ilusion of movement (called 25 the Autokinetic Effect). In this uncertain and ambiguous perceptual situation, Sherif (1937) found that individuals were quite susceptible to the influence of the opinions of others when trying to decide how much light was moving. 30 Unfortunately, this phenomenon also extends to individuals following the crowd, even when they can clearly see that others are wrong. This was first evaluated by Asch (1955), who asked participants to pick a line from a few choices of varying lengths that 35 matched up with another example line given to them. From a perceptual standpoint, the task was easy - as the correct choice of which lines were actually similar to one another was clear. Nevertheless, when participants were surrounded by other individuals giving the wrong 40 answer, they often conformed and made the wrong choice as well. Thus, even when the correct choice is clear, and what others are doing is wrong, that peer pressure can still cause us to doubt ourselves and follow the crowd. 45 Why is it that we are so compelled to follow the crowd, even when it is objectively clear that they are wrong? According to more recent research, we may simply be wired that way. Specifically, these social influences can actually change our perceptions and 50 memories (Edelson, Sharot, Dolan, Dudai, 2011). Therefore, rather than knowingly making the wrong choice just to conform to peer pressure, the influence of others may actually change what we see as the correct choice in the moment and remember as the right thing 55 after the fact. Beyond that, we might just have herding brains with built-in components that monitor our social alignments and make us feel good when we follow the crowd too (Shamay-Tsoory, Saporta, Marton-Alper, Gvirts, 2019). 60 Fortunately, this effect has good points as well. In many cases, group decision-making can help individuals look beyond their own private perspectives and make more rational decisions (Fahr Irlenbusch, 2011). Furthermore, pro-social and altruistic behaviors can be 65 influenced and shared through such conformity as well (Nook. Ong, Morelli, Mitchell, Zaki, 2016). Therefore, sometimes following the crowd helps people get along and make better decisions too. Given the above, when making a decision, it is 70 important to consider whether following others is a good idea - or is leading you astray instead. Some simple steps can help you figure it out. Getting swept away by that everyone else is doing is often an emotional and thoughtless process. We 75 are conforming simply because we have not given sufficient attention and effort toward considering any other options. Therefore, unless you are in an emergency situation and need to immediately follow everyone else toward the nearest exit, it might be a good 80 idea to switch to more deliberate thinking processes, rather than just going with your initial reaction. Some choices and decision-making situations are more individual, while others are more social. Therefore, it is important to consider the specific 85 situation. Is this an individual choice, or does it involve others? If you have sufficient information to make a clear choice on your own, and you do not need the 90 support of others to make something heppen, then taking the opinion of other into consideration might be a good idea instead. It is generally a good idea to evaluate your choices and decisions from multiple perspectives. The 95 same is true for following the opinion of others too. Although it might not feel that way at times, especially on the modern day of media coverage and social networking, everyone is not doing it - whatever it is that you are considering. Given that, before you follow 100 the advice or choices of any particular group of people, it might be a good idea to look at what other groups of people are doing or choosing too. In addition, we can learn a lot from people making choices contrary to ourselves or our preferred group, particularly about 105 potential down-sides to choices we might not be seeing. Therefore, if you do need to look to others to help provide information regarding a particular choice or decision, then it might help to seek out people with a few different opinions, weigh your options among them, and 110 figure out what will work best for you. (Adapted from https://www.psychologytoday.com. Acess on March 25th, 2021) An indirect question can be seen in:

Questão 13
2022Inglês

(AFA - 2022 - Modelo A - Questo 13) TEXT When making a decision, it is a common impulse to look and see what others are doing. Nevertheless, it is often unclear whether the path that everyone else may be following is good for us as well. After all, sometimes 5 following the crowd had merit - at other times, itis simply peer pressure blinding us. The phenomenon of looking to other and following the crowd ______ by social science for a long time. Nevertheless, those findings do not always make 10their way to individual decision-makers. Therefore, lets review why people conform to the crowd - and under what conditions it is a good idea to go your own way instead. To start, individuals tend to look to the opinions of 15 others, especially when they are unsure and lack information from other sources. This dynamic was supported by classic research from Sherif (1937), who explored how a persons perception of a very ambiguous stimuli can be influenced by the opinion of others. Sherif 20(1937) asked participants to watch a small light in a dark and featureless room and evaluate how much that light moved at all - but the way our perception works in thar situation gives the possible ilusion of movement (called 25 the Autokinetic Effect). In this uncertain and ambiguous perceptual situation, Sherif (1937) found that individuals were quite susceptible to the influence of the opinions of others when trying to decide how much light was moving. 30 Unfortunately, this phenomenon also extends to individuals following the crowd, even when they can clearly see that others are wrong. This was first evaluated by Asch (1955), who asked participants to pick a line from a few choices of varying lengths that 35 matched up with another example line given to them. From a perceptual standpoint, the task was easy - as the correct choice of which lines were actually similar to one another was clear. Nevertheless, when participants were surrounded by other individuals giving the wrong 40 answer, they often conformed and made the wrong choice as well. Thus, even when the correct choice is clear, and what others are doing is wrong, that peer pressure can still cause us to doubt ourselves and follow the crowd. 45 Why is it that we are so compelled to follow the crowd, even when it is objectively clear that they are wrong? According to more recent research, we may simply be wired that way. Specifically, these social influences can actually change our perceptions and 50 memories (Edelson, Sharot, Dolan, Dudai, 2011). Therefore, rather than knowingly making the wrong choice just to conform to peer pressure, the influence of others may actually change what we see as the correct choice in the moment and remember as the right thing 55 after the fact. Beyond that, we might just have herding brains with built-in components that monitor our social alignments and make us feel good when we follow the crowd too (Shamay-Tsoory, Saporta, Marton-Alper, Gvirts, 2019). 60 Fortunately, this effect has good points as well. In many cases, group decision-making can help individuals look beyond their own private perspectives and make more rational decisions (Fahr Irlenbusch, 2011). Furthermore, pro-social and altruistic behaviors can be 65 influenced and shared through such conformity as well (Nook. Ong, Morelli, Mitchell, Zaki, 2016). Therefore, sometimes following the crowd helps people get along and make better decisions too. Given the above, when making a decision, it is 70 important to consider whether following others is a good idea - or is leading you astray instead. Some simple steps can help you figure it out. Getting swept away by that everyone else is doing is often an emotional and thoughtless process. We 75 are conforming simply because we have not given sufficient attention and effort toward considering any other options. Therefore, unless you are in an emergency situation and need to immediately follow everyone else toward the nearest exit, it might be a good 80 idea to switch to more deliberate thinking processes, rather than just going with your initial reaction. Some choices and decision-making situations are more individual, while others are more social. Therefore, it is important to consider the specific 85 situation. Is this an individual choice, or does it involve others? If you have sufficient information to make a clear choice on your own, and you do not need the 90 support of others to make something heppen, then taking the opinion of other into consideration might be a good idea instead. It is generally a good idea to evaluate your choices and decisions from multiple perspectives. The 95 same is true for following the opinion of others too. Although it might not feel that way at times, especially on the modern day of media coverage and social networking, everyone is not doing it - whatever it is that you are considering. Given that, before you follow 100 the advice or choices of any particular group of people, it might be a good idea to look at what other groups of people are doing or choosing too. In addition, we can learn a lot from people making choices contrary to ourselves or our preferred group, particularly about 105 potential down-sides to choices we might not be seeing. Therefore, if you do need to look to others to help provide information regarding a particular choice or decision, then it might help to seek out people with a few different opinions, weigh your options among them, and 110 figure out what will work best for you. (Adapted from https://www.psychologytoday.com. Acess on March 25th, 2021) In the text, the phrasal verb that means have a harmonious and friendly relationship is

Questão 14
2022Inglês

(AFA - 2022 - Modelo A - Questo 14) TEXT When making a decision, it is a common impulse to look and see what others are doing. Nevertheless, it is often unclear whether the path that everyone else may be following is good for us as well. After all, sometimes 5 following the crowd had merit - at other times, itis simply peer pressure blinding us. The phenomenon of looking to other and following the crowd ______ by social science for a long time. Nevertheless, those findings do not always make 10their way to individual decision-makers. Therefore, lets review why people conform to the crowd - and under what conditions it is a good idea to go your own way instead. To start, individuals tend to look to the opinions of 15 others, especially when they are unsure and lack information from other sources. This dynamic was supported by classic research from Sherif (1937), who explored how a persons perception of a very ambiguous stimuli can be influenced by the opinion of others. Sherif 20(1937) asked participants to watch a small light in a dark and featureless room and evaluate how much that light moved at all - but the way our perception works in thar situation gives the possible ilusion of movement (called 25 the Autokinetic Effect). In this uncertain and ambiguous perceptual situation, Sherif (1937) found that individuals were quite susceptible to the influence of the opinions of others when trying to decide how much light was moving. 30 Unfortunately, this phenomenon also extends to individuals following the crowd, even when they can clearly see that others are wrong. This was first evaluated by Asch (1955), who asked participants to pick a line from a few choices of varying lengths that 35 matched up with another example line given to them. From a perceptual standpoint, the task was easy - as the correct choice of which lines were actually similar to one another was clear. Nevertheless, when participants were surrounded by other individuals giving the wrong 40 answer, they often conformed and made the wrong choice as well. Thus, even when the correct choice is clear, and what others are doing is wrong, that peer pressure can still cause us to doubt ourselves and follow the crowd. 45 Why is it that we are so compelled to follow the crowd, even when it is objectively clear that they are wrong? According to more recent research, we may simply be wired that way. Specifically, these social influences can actually change our perceptions and 50 memories (Edelson, Sharot, Dolan, Dudai, 2011). Therefore, rather than knowingly making the wrong choice just to conform to peer pressure, the influence of others may actually change what we see as the correct choice in the moment and remember as the right thing 55 after the fact. Beyond that, we might just have herding brains with built-in components that monitor our social alignments and make us feel good when we follow the crowd too (Shamay-Tsoory, Saporta, Marton-Alper, Gvirts, 2019). 60 Fortunately, this effect has good points as well. In many cases, group decision-making can help individuals look beyond their own private perspectives and make more rational decisions (Fahr Irlenbusch, 2011). Furthermore, pro-social and altruistic behaviors can be 65 influenced and shared through such conformity as well (Nook. Ong, Morelli, Mitchell, Zaki, 2016). Therefore, sometimes following the crowd helps people get along and make better decisions too. Given the above, when making a decision, it is 70 important to consider whether following others is a good idea - or is leading you astray instead. Some simple steps can help you figure it out. Getting swept away by that everyone else is doing is often an emotional and thoughtless process. We 75 are conforming simply because we have not given sufficient attention and effort toward considering any other options. Therefore, unless you are in an emergency situation and need to immediately follow everyone else toward the nearest exit, it might be a good 80 idea to switch to more deliberate thinking processes, rather than just going with your initial reaction. Some choices and decision-making situations are more individual, while others are more social. Therefore, it is important to consider the specific 85 situation. Is this an individual choice, or does it involve others? If you have sufficient information to make a clear choice on your own, and you do not need the 90 support of others to make something heppen, then taking the opinion of other into consideration might be a good idea instead. It is generally a good idea to evaluate your choices and decisions from multiple perspectives. The 95 same is true for following the opinion of others too. Although it might not feel that way at times, especially on the modern day of media coverage and social networking, everyone is not doing it - whatever it is that you are considering. Given that, before you follow 100 the advice or choices of any particular group of people, it might be a good idea to look at what other groups of people are doing or choosing too. In addition, we can learn a lot from people making choices contrary to ourselves or our preferred group, particularly about 105 potential down-sides to choices we might not be seeing. Therefore, if you do need to look to others to help provide information regarding a particular choice or decision, then it might help to seek out people with a few different opinions, weigh your options among them, and 110 figure out what will work best for you. (Adapted from https://www.psychologytoday.com. Acess on March 25th, 2021) Mark the alternative that showsa synonym for down-side (line 105).

Questão 15
2022Inglês

(AFA - 2022 - Modelo A - Questo 15) TEXT When making a decision, it is a common impulse to look and see what others are doing. Nevertheless, it is often unclear whether the path that everyone else may be following is good for us as well. After all, sometimes 5 following the crowd had merit - at other times, it is simply peer pressure blinding us. The phenomenon of looking to other and following the crowd ______ by social science for a long time. Nevertheless, those findings do not always make 10 their way to individual decision-makers. Therefore, lets review why people conform to the crowd - and under what conditions it is a good idea to go your own way instead. To start, individuals tend to look to the opinions of 15 others, especially when they are unsure and lack information from other sources. This dynamic was supported by classic research from Sherif (1937), who explored how a persons perception of a very ambiguous stimuli can be influenced by the opinion of others. Sherif 20 (1937) asked participants to watch a small light in a dark and featureless room and evaluate how much that light moved at all - but the way our perception works in thar situation gives the possible ilusion of movement (called 25 the Autokinetic Effect). In this uncertain and ambiguous perceptual situation, Sherif (1937) found that individuals were quite susceptible to the influence of the opinions of others when trying to decide how much light was moving. 30 Unfortunately, this phenomenon also extends to individuals following the crowd, even when they can clearly see that others are wrong. This was first evaluated by Asch (1955), who asked participants to pick a line from a few choices of varying lengths that 35 matched up with another example line given to them. From a perceptual standpoint, the task was easy - as the correct choice of which lines were actually similar to one another was clear. Nevertheless, when participants were surrounded by other individuals giving the wrong 40 answer, they often conformed and made the wrong choice as well. Thus, even when the correct choice is clear, and what others are doing is wrong, that peer pressure can still cause us to doubt ourselves and follow the crowd. 45 Why is it that we are so compelled to follow the crowd, even when it is objectively clear that they are wrong? According to more recent research, we may simply be wired that way. Specifically, these social influences can actually change our perceptions and 50 memories (Edelson, Sharot, Dolan, Dudai, 2011). Therefore, rather than knowingly making the wrong choice just to conform to peer pressure, the influence of others may actually change what we see as the correct choice in the moment and remember as the right thing 55 after the fact. Beyond that, we might just have herding brains with built-in components that monitor our social alignments and make us feel good when we follow the crowd too (Shamay-Tsoory, Saporta, Marton-Alper, Gvirts, 2019). 60 Fortunately, this effect has good points as well. In many cases, group decision-making can help individuals look beyond their own private perspectives and make more rational decisions (Fahr Irlenbusch, 2011). Furthermore, pro-social and altruistic behaviors can be 65 influenced and shared through such conformity as well (Nook. Ong, Morelli, Mitchell, Zaki, 2016). Therefore, sometimes following the crowd helps people get along and make better decisions too. Given the above, when making a decision, it is 70 important to consider whether following others is a good idea - or is leading you astray instead. Some simple steps can help you figure it out. Getting swept away by that everyone else is doing is often an emotional and thoughtless process. We 75 are conforming simply because we have not given sufficient attention and effort toward considering any other options. Therefore, unless you are in an emergency situation and need to immediately follow everyone else toward the nearest exit, it might be a good 80 idea to switch to more deliberate thinking processes, rather than just going with your initial reaction. Some choices and decision-making situations are more individual, while others are more social. Therefore, it is important to consider the specific 85 situation. Is this an individual choice, or does it involve others? If you have sufficient information to make a clear choice on your own, and you do not need the 90 support of others to make something heppen, then taking the opinion of other into consideration might be a good idea instead. It is generally a good idea to evaluate your choices and decisions from multiple perspectives. The 95 same is true for following the opinion of others too. Although it might not feel that way at times, especially on the modern day of media coverage and social networking, everyone is not doing it - whatever it is that you are considering. Given that, before you follow 100 the advice or choices of any particular group of people, it might be a good idea to look at what other groups of people are doing or choosing too. In addition, we can learn a lot from people making choices contrary to ourselves or our preferred group, particularly about 105 potential down-sides to choices we might not be seeing. Therefore, if you do need to look to others to help provide information regarding a particular choice or decision, then it might help to seek out people with a few different opinions, weigh your options among them, and 110 figure out what will work best for you. (Adapted from https://www.psychologytoday.com. Acess on March 25th, 2021) Based on the last paragraph, its safe to say that